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      Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Isolates on Chickens Processed and Retailed at Outlets of the Informal Market in Gauteng Province, South Africa

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          Abstract

          The study determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella on chickens processed and retailed at outlets of the informal markets in Gauteng province, South Africa. The study also investigated the relationship of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella to the source and type of samples and their serotypes. Carcass swabs, cloacal swabs and carcass drips were randomly collected from each of 151 slaughtered chickens from six townships. Isolation and identification were performed using standard and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the resistance of Salmonella isolates to 16 antimicrobial agents and PCR to determine their serovars. Ninety-eight (64.9%) of the 151 chickens were contaminated with Salmonella of which 94.9% (93/98) were resistant serovars. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates was high to erythromycin (94.9%) and spectinomycin (82.7%) but was low to ciprofloxacin (1.0%) and norfloxacin (1.0%) ( p < 0.05). All 170 isolates of Salmonella tested exhibited resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents and the frequency varied significantly ( p < 0.05) across the townships, the type of samples and the serovars. The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Salmonella was 81.8% (139/170). Our findings pose zoonotic, food safety and therapeutic risks to workers and consumers of undercooked, contaminated chickens from these outlets.

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          Most cited references 71

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          The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food‐borne outbreaks in 2017

          (2018)
          Abstract This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2017 in 37 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and nine non‐MS). Campylobacteriosis was the commonest reported zoonosis and its EU trend for confirmed human cases increasing since 2008 stabilised during 2013–2017. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed human salmonellosis cases since 2008 ended during 2013–2017, and the proportion of human Salmonella Enteritidis cases increased, mostly due to one MS starting to report serotype data. Sixteen MS met all Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, whereas 12 MS failed meeting at least one. The EU flock prevalence of target Salmonella serovars in breeding hens, laying hens, broilers and fattening turkeys decreased or remained stable compared to 2016, and slightly increased in breeding turkeys. Salmonella results on pig carcases and target Salmonella serovar results for poultry from competent authorities tended to be generally higher compared to those from food business operators. The notification rate of human listeriosis further increased in 2017, despite Listeria seldom exceeding the EU food safety limit in ready‐to‐eat food. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed yersiniosis cases since 2008 stabilised during 2013–2017. The number of confirmed shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in humans was stable. A total of 5,079 food‐borne (including waterborne) outbreaks were reported. Salmonella was the commonest detected agent with S. Enteritidis causing one out of seven outbreaks, followed by other bacteria, bacterial toxins and viruses. The agent was unknown in 37.6% of all outbreaks. Salmonella in eggs and Salmonella in meat and meat products were the highest risk agent/food pairs. The report further summarises trends and sources for bovine tuberculosis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia.
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            The application of antibiotics in broiler production and the resulting antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli : A global overview

            ABSTRACT The increase in antibiotic resistance is a global concern for human and animal health. Resistant microorganisms can spread between food-producing animals and humans. The objective of this review was to identify the type and amount of antibiotics used in poultry production and the level of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from broilers. Isolate information was obtained from national monitoring programs and research studies conducted in large poultry-producing regions: US, China, Brazil, and countries of EU—Poland, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Spain. The survey results clearly display the absence of a harmonized approach in the monitoring of antibiotics per animal species and the evaluation of resistances using the same methodology. There is no public long-term quantitative data available targeting the amount of antibiotics used in poultry, with the exception of France. Data on antibiotic-resistant E. coli are available for most regions but detection of resistance and number of isolates in each study differs among regions; therefore, statistical evaluation was not possible. Data from France indicate that the decreased use of tetracyclines leads to a reduction in the detected resistance rates. The fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, macrolides, and polymyxins (“highest priority critically important” antibiotics for human medicine according to WHO) are approved for use in large poultry-producing regions, with the exception of fluoroquinolones in the US and cephalosporins in the EU. The approval of cephalosporins in China could not be evaluated. Tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and penicillins are registered for use in poultry in all evaluated countries. The average resistance rates in E. coli to representatives of these antibiotic classes are higher than 40% in all countries, with the exception of ampicillin in the US. The resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and quinolones in the US, where fluoroquinolones are not registered for use, are below 5%, while the average of resistant E. coli is above 40% in Brazil, China, and EU, where use of fluoroquinolones is legalized. However, banning of fluoroquinolones and quinolones has not totally eliminated the occurrence of resistant populations.
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              Impacts of antibiotic use in agriculture: what are the benefits and risks?

              Antibiotic drugs provide clear benefits for food animal health and welfare, while simultaneously providing clear risks due to enrichment of resistant microorganisms. There is no consensus, however, on how to evaluate benefits and risks of antibiotic use in agriculture, or the impact on public health. Recent soil resistome work emphasizes the importance of environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance (AR), and provides a starting point for distinguishing AR that can be impacted by agricultural practices from AR naturally present in a system. Manure is the primary vehicle introducing antibiotic drugs, AR bacteria and AR genes from animals into the environment. Manure management, therefore, impacts the transfer of AR from agricultural to human clinical settings via soil, water, and food. Ongoing research on the ecology of naturally occurring and anthropogenically derived AR in agroecosystems is necessary to adequately quantify the benefits and risks associated with use of antibiotics in food animals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Pathogens
                Pathogens
                pathogens
                Pathogens
                MDPI
                2076-0817
                01 March 2021
                March 2021
                : 10
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X 04, Onderstepoort, Pretoria 0110, South Africa; mt.mokgophi@ 123456yahoo.com
                [2 ]Agricultural Research Council–Bacteriology and Zoonotic Diseases Diagnostic Laboratory, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Private Bag X 05, Onderstepoort, Pretoria 0110, South Africa; GcebeN@ 123456arc.agric.za
                [3 ]ECTAD, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Dar es Salaam 14111, Tanzania & Department of Vet-erinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria 0110, South Africa; folorunso.fasina@ 123456fao.org
                [4 ]Department of Paraclinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
                Author notes
                Article
                pathogens-10-00273
                10.3390/pathogens10030273
                8000370
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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