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      Amino Acid Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Ageing Populations

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          Abstract

          In recent years, considerable scientific interest has been devoted to amino acid supplementation and its role in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism in health, ageing and disease. This interest has, in part, stemmed from clinical evidence that traditional nutritional supplementation in patients is largely ineffective. In particular, this knowledge has prompted extensive research into the mechanisms responsible for amino acid stimulation of muscle protein metabolism in older adults with sarcopenia. It is well established that ageing diminishes muscle strength and size, contributing to a number of serious health problems such as an increased risk of falls and fractures. Although the reasons behind age-related sarcopenia are multifactorial and involve a complex interplay of hormonal and metabolic stimuli, it is clear that inadequate nutrition and inactivity are strong causative factors. Recently, the idea that elderly muscle is perhaps less anabolically sensitive to amino acids has been put forward as an additional causative factor. In light of this recent evidence, and the further suggestion that the effects of essential amino acids on skeletal muscle are independent of changes in insulin, newer studies are focusing on tailoring the optimal amount and proportion of amino acids needed to stimulate muscle protein synthesis most efficiently in ageing populations. Understanding the mechanisms of amino acid stimulation of muscle protein synthesis may also provide insight into the metabolic regulation of anabolism in skeletal muscle by key hormones such as growth hormone. In this article, we summarize current research concerning amino acids and skeletal muscle, particularly with regard to ageing and inactivity.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-8244-5
          978-3-318-01440-2
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          2006
          January 2007
          25 January 2007
          : 66
          : Suppl 1
          : 93-97
          Affiliations
          Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston,Tex., USA
          Article
          96630 Horm Res 2006;66:93–97
          10.1159/000096630
          © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 3, References: 32, Pages: 5
          Categories
          Effects of GH in Adults

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