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      Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the effect of alveolar cleft bone graft on the maxillofacial biomechanical stabilities of unilateral complete cleft lip and palate

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          Abstract

          Background

          The objective is to clarify the effect of alveolar cleft bone graft on maxillofacial biomechanical stabilities, the key areas when bone grafting and in which should be supplemented with bone graft once bone resorption occurred in UCCLP (unilateral complete cleft lip and palate).

          Methods

          Maxillofacial CAD (computer aided design) models of non-bone graft and full maxilla cleft, full alveolar cleft bone graft, bone graft in other sites of the alveolar cleft were acquired by processing the UCCLP maxillofacial CT data in three-dimensional modeling software. The maxillofacial bone EQV (equivalent) stresses and bone suture EQV strains under occlusal states were obtained in the finite element analysis software.

          Results

          Under corresponding occlusal states, the EQV stresses of maxilla, pterygoid process of sphenoid bone on the corresponding side and anterior alveolar arch on the non-cleft side were higher than other maxillofacial bones, the EQV strains of nasomaxillary, zygomaticomaxillary and pterygomaxillary suture on the corresponding side were higher than other maxillofacial bone sutures. The mean EQV strains of nasal raphe, the maximum EQV stresses of posterior alveolar arch on the non-cleft side, the mean and maximum EQV strains of nasomaxillary suture on the non-cleft side in full alveolar cleft bone graft model were all significantly lower than those in non-bone graft model. The mean EQV stresses of bilateral anterior alveolar arches, the maximum EQV stresses of maxilla and its alveolar arch on the cleft side in the model with bone graft in lower 1/3 of the alveolar cleft were significantly higher than those in full alveolar cleft bone graft model.

          Conclusions

          For UCCLP, bilateral maxillae, pterygoid processes of sphenoid bones and bilateral nasomaxillary, zygomaticomaxillary, pterygomaxillary sutures, anterior alveolar arch on the non-cleft side are the main occlusal load-bearing structures before and after alveolar cleft bone graft. Alveolar cleft bone graft mainly affects biomechanical stabilities of nasal raphe and posterior alveolar arch, nasomaxillary suture on the non-cleft side. The areas near nasal floor and in the middle of the alveolar cleft are the key sites when bone grafting, and should be supplemented with bone graft when the bone resorbed in these areas.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12938-022-01000-y.

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          Most cited references88

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          The compressive behavior of bone as a two-phase porous structure

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            Secondary bone grafting of residual alveolar and palatal clefts.

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              Study of stress distribution and displacement of various craniofacial structures following application of transverse orthopedic forces--a three-dimensional FEM study.

              The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the craniofacial complex during rapid maxillary expansion. Therefore, a finite element model of a young human skull was generated using data from computerized tomographic scans of a dried skull. The model was then strained to a state of maxillary expansion simulating the clinical situation. The three-dimensional pattern of displacement and stress distribution was then analyzed. Maximum lateral displacement was 5.313 mm at the region of upper central incisors. The inferior parts of the pterygoid plates were also markedly displaced laterally. But there was minimum displacement of the pterygoid plates approximating the cranial base. Maximum forward displacement was 1.077 mm and was seen at the region of the anteroinferior border of the nasal septum. In the vertical plane, the midline structures experienced a downward displacement. Even the ANS and point A moved downward. The findings of this study provide some additional explanation of the concept of correlation between the areas of increased cellular activity and the areas of dissipation of heavy orthopedic forces. Therefore, the reason for the occurrence of sensation of pressure at various craniofacial regions, reported by the patients undergoing maxillary expansion could be correlated to areas of high concentration of stresses as seen in this study. Additionally, the expansive forces are not restricted to the intermaxillary suture alone but are also distributed to the sphenoid and zygomatic bones and other associated structures.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                slonnierudiveckoal@163.com
                huanghanyao_cn@scu.edu.cn
                wwind126@126.com
                shibingcn@vip.sina.com
                zq652@163.com
                leechenghao_cn@163.com
                Journal
                Biomed Eng Online
                Biomed Eng Online
                BioMedical Engineering OnLine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-925X
                20 May 2022
                20 May 2022
                2022
                : 21
                : 31
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.13291.38, ISNI 0000 0001 0807 1581, West China School of Stomatology, , Sichuan University, ; Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan Province The People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]GRID grid.13291.38, ISNI 0000 0001 0807 1581, West China Hospital of Stomatology, , Sichuan University, ; Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan Province The People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Urumql DW Innovation InfoTech Co., Ltd., Urumqi, 830000 Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region The People’s Republic of China
                Article
                1000
                10.1186/s12938-022-01000-y
                9123812
                fc0b66f1-979c-441f-970e-40c187fecbd0
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 30 September 2021
                : 16 May 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University
                Award ID: LCYJ2019-10
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Biomedical engineering
                unilateral complete cleft lip and palate,alveolar cleft bone graft,maxillofacial bone,maxillofacial bone suture,equivalent stress,equivalent strain

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