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      Morphological updates and molecular description of Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann, & Ha, 2011 (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) in the Pacific Ocean off Vietnam Translated title: Mise à jour morphologique et caractérisation moléculaire d’ Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) de l’Océan Pacifique au large du Vietnam

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Acanthocephala, Heterosentis holospinus, Vietnam, New features, Molecular profile

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          Abstract

          Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Arhythmacanthidae) was first described from the striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Plotosidae) in Halong Bay, Vietnam. New morphological information, scanning electron microscope images, molecular analysis, and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) of hooks of specimens of H. holospinus from a new collection from the common ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus (Leiognathidae), in Quang Binh, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam are reported here for the first time. Additional details of the anterior trunk cone, proboscis hooks, wholly spined trunk, duck-bill-like spines with micropores, and micropore distribution, are described. The unique metal composition of hooks (EDXA) demonstrated a considerably higher level of calcium and phosphorus but lower level of sulfur at the hook basal arch than at the hook tip and edge. An analysis of our new sequences of cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) showed that H. holospinus had low genetic variation and two haplotypes.

          Translated abstract

          Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Arhythmacanthidae) a été décrit pour la première fois chez le poisson-chat Plotosus lineatus (Plotosidae) dans la baie d’Halong, au Vietnam. Des nouvelles informations morphologiques, des images au microscope électronique à balayage, une analyse moléculaire et une analyse par rayons X à dispersion d’énergie (EDXA) des crochets de spécimens d’ H. holospinus provenant d’une nouvelle récolte de Leiognathus equulus (Leiognathidae), à Quang Binh, golfe du Tonkin, Vietnam sont données pour la première fois. Des détails supplémentaires sur le cône antérieur du tronc, les crochets du proboscis, le tronc entièrement épineux, les épines en forme de bec de canard avec des micropores et la distribution des micropores sont décrits. La composition métallique unique des crochets (EDXA) a démontré une teneur en calcium et en phosphore considérablement plus élevée, mais une teneur en soufre plus faible au niveau de l’arcade basale du crochet qu’à la pointe et au bord du crochet. Une analyse de nos nouvelles séquences de cytochrome oxydase 1 (COI) a montré qu’ H. holospinus présentait une faible variation génétique et deux haplotypes.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Phylogenetic relationships among Syndermata inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

          Phylogenetic relationships among Syndermata have been extensively debated, mainly because the sister-group of the Acanthocephala has not yet been clearly identified from analyses of morphological and molecular data. Here we conduct phylogenetic analyses on samples from the 4 classes of Acanthocephala (Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala, and Palaeacanthocephala) and the 3 Rotifera classes (Bdelloidea, Monogononta, and Seisonidea). We do so using small-subunit (SSU) and large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) sequences. These nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained for 27 acanthocephalans, 9 rotifers, and representatives of 6 phyla that were used as outgroups. Maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on the nuclear rDNA(SSU+LSU) and the combined sequence dataset(SSU+LSU+cox 1 genes). Phylogenetic analyses of the combined rDNA and cox 1 data uniformly provided strong support for a clade including rotifers plus acanthocephalans (Syndermata). Strong support was also found for monophyly of Acanthocephala in analyses of the combined dataset or rDNA sequences alone. Within the Acanthocephala the monophyletic grouping of the representatives of each class was strongly supported. Our results depicted Archiacanthocephala as the sister-group to the remaining acanthocephalans. Analyses of the combined dataset recovered a sister-group relationship between Acanthocephala and Bdelloidea by parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Support for this clade was generally strong. Alternative topologies that depicted a different rotifer sister-group of Acanthocephala (or monophyly of Rotifera) were significantly worse. In this paraphyletic assemblage of rotifers, the relative positions of Seisonidea and Monogononta to the clade Bdelloidea+Acanthocephala were inconsistent among trees based on different inference methods. These results indicate that Bdelloidea is the free-living sister-group to acanthocephalans, which should prove key for comparative investigations of the morphological, molecular, and ecological changes accompanying the evolution of parasitism.
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            Phylogenetic relationships of Palaeacanthocephala (Acanthocephala) inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA gene sequences.

            The Palaeacanthocephala is traditionally represented by 2 orders, Echinorhynchida and Polymorphida, with 10 and 3 families, respectively. To test the monophyly of the class, these 2 orders, and certain families, phylogenies were inferred using nuclear small-subunit (SSU) and large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequences obtained for 29 species representing 10 families, 2 other classes of acanthocephalans, and 3 rotifer outgroups. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyzing combined SSU and LSU sequences using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Parsimony and ML trees inferred from combined analysis of these rDNA data strongly supported monophyly of Palaeacanthocephala and provided good resolution among species. Neither Polymorphida nor Echinorhynchida was monophyletic. Gorgorhynchoides bullocki (Echinorhynchida) was nested within the 6 species representing Polymorphida, and this clade was nested within species representing Echinorhynchida. Three of 4 palaeacanthocephalan families that could be evaluated were not monophyletic, and this finding was strongly supported. These results indicate that the family level classification of palaeacanthocephalans, which is mainly based on combinations of shared characters (not shared derived characters), needs to be reevaluated with respect to comprehensively sampled phylogenetic hypotheses.
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              Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

              The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                19 December 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Parasitic Diseases 11445 E. Via Linda 2-419 85259 Scottsdale AZ USA
                [2 ] Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile Campus Isla Teja s/n Valdivia Chile
                [3 ] Department of Biology, Brigham Young University 1114 MLBM 84602 Provo UT USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: omaramin@ 123456aol.com
                Article
                parasite190104 10.1051/parasite/2019072
                10.1051/parasite/2019072
                6921964
                31855174
                © O.M. Amin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

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