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      Nutritional Evaluation of Commercially Important Fish Species of Lakshadweep Archipelago, India


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          Estimation of nutrition profile of edible fishes is essential and thus a bio-monitoring study was carried out to find out the nutritional composition of commonly available fishes in Agatti Island water of Lakshadweep Sea. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid composition in the muscle of ten edible fish species were studied. Proximate analysis revealed that the protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash contents were high in Thunnus albacares (13.69%), Parupeneus bifasciatus (6.12%), Hyporhamphus dussumieri (6.97%) and T. albacares (1.65%), respectively. Major amino acids were lysine, leucine and methionine, registering 2.84–4.56%, 2.67–4.18% and 2.64–3.91%, respectively. Fatty acid compositions ranged from 31.63% to 38.97% saturated (SFA), 21.99–26.30% monounsaturated (MUFAs), 30.32–35.11% polyunsaturated acids (PUFAs) and 2.86–7.79% branched fatty acids of the total fatty acids. The ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs were ranged 13.05–21.14% and 6.88–9.82% of the total fatty acids, respectively. Hence, the fishes of Lakshadweep Sea are highly recommended for consumption, since these fishes are highly enriched with nutrition. The results can be used as a baseline data for comparing the various nutritional profiles of fishes in future.

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          Most cited references 7

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          The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition.

          The brain is 60% structural lipid, which universally uses arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) for growth, function, and integrity. Both acids are consistent components of human milk. Experimental evidence in animals has demonstrated that the effect of essential fatty acid deficiency during early brain development is deleterious and permanent. The risk of neurodevelopmental disorder is highest in the very-low-birth-weight babies. Babies born of low birth weight or prematurely are most likely to have been born to mothers who were inadequately nourished, and the babies tend to be born with AA and DHA deficits. Because disorders of brain development can be permanent, proper provision should be made to protect the AA and DHA status of both term and preterm infants to ensure optimum conditions for the development of membrane-rich systems such as the brain, nervous, and vascular systems.
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            Influence of diet on fatty acids of three subtropical fish, subfamily Caesioninae (Caesio diagramma and C. tile) and family Siganidae (Siganus canaliculatus).

            The total lipid and fatty acid compositions of tissues and the stomach contents of three subtropical marine fish species, subfamily Caesioninae, Caesio diagramma and C. tile, and family Siganidae Siganus canaliculatus, were investigated to clarify the differences between these species. Triacylglycerols (TAG) were the dominant depot lipids of the three species, whereas wax esters were found as a minor component. In particular, muscle lipids were found to contain mainly glycerol derivatives such as TAG and phospholipids. The major fatty acids identified in the three species were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 n-9, and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). In addition, noticeable levels of 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7, 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, AA), and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) were found. DHA was the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the muscle and viscera lipids of the three species. The high DHA levels in the lipids of all the organs were found to be higher than those of the lipid extracted from the stomach contents of the three fishes. In addition, the specimens of S. canaliculatus contained significantly higher levels of AA in its tissues than did the other two species. A high AA content is unusual since such high levels of n-6 PUFA are rarely found in higher marine organisms. These levels may be due to its characteristic feeding pattern, because S. canaliculatus prefer and mainly feed on seaweed, which often contains high amounts of n-6 PUFA, such as linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and AA.
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              Molecular and structural composition of phospholipid membranes in livers of marine and freshwater fish in relation to temperature.

              The compositions and physical states of the liver phospholipids of marine and freshwater fish adapted to relatively constant but radically different temperatures were investigated. Fish adapted to low temperature (5-10 degrees C) accumulated more unsaturated fatty acids than those in a warm (25-27 degrees C) environment. There were no measurable differences in the gross fatty acid compositions of the total liver phospholipids from identical thermal environments. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) did not seem to participate in the process of adaptation. Cold adaptation was coincidental with oleic acid (18:1) accumulation, preferentially in the phosphatidylethanolamine. Determination of the molecular species composition of phosphatidylethanolamine revealed a 2- to 3-fold and 10-fold increase in the level of 18:1/22:6 and 18:1/20:5 species, respectively. ESR spectroscopy revealed a 7-10% compensation in the ordering state of native phospholipids with temperature. Combination of 16:0/22:6 phosphatidylcholine with phosphatidylethanolamines of cold-adapted marine fish showed a drastic fluidization near the C-2 segment of the bilayer, but not in the deeper regions. An appropriate combination (75:25) of phosphatidylcholines from warmth-adapted marine fish with phosphatidylethanolamines from cold-adapted marine fish mimicked a 100% adaptational efficacy in the C-2 segment as compared with the phosphatidylethanolamines of warmth-adapted marine fish. A specific role of 18:1/22:6 phosphatidylethanolamine in controlling membrane structure and physical state with thermal adaptation is proposed.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                21 September 2012
                : 7
                : 9
                [1 ]Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India
                [2 ]Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Field Research Station, Agatti Island, U. T. of Lakshadweep, India
                University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: KVD. Performed the experiments: KMN KVD. Analyzed the data: KVD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: Wrote the paper: KVD. Contributed the materials: KVD. Checked the manuscript: TTAK.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                The authors have no support or funding to report.
                Research Article
                Animal Management
                Animal Nutrition
                Fatty Acids
                Carbohydrate Metabolism
                Lipid Metabolism
                Marine Biology
                Fisheries Science
                Marine Monitoring
                Organic Chemistry
                Organic Acids
                Amino Acids



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