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      The Rise of Polymeric Microneedles: Recent Developments, Advances, Challenges, and Applications with Regard to Transdermal Drug Delivery

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      Journal of Functional Biomaterials
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          The current scenario of the quest for microneedles (MNs) with biodegradability and biocompatibility properties is a potential research area of interest. Microneedles are considered to be robust, can penetrate the skin’s deep-seated layers, and are easy to manufacture, and their applications from the clinical perspective are still ongoing with standard escalation. This review paper focuses on some of the pivotal variants of polymeric microneedles which are specifically dissolvable and swell-based MNs. It further explores the drug dissolution kinetics and insertion behavior mechanisms with an emphasis on the need for mathematical modeling of MNs. This review further evaluates the multifarious fabrication methods, with an update on the advances in the fabrication of polymeric MNs, the choice of materials used for the fabrication, the challenges in polymeric MN fabrication, and the prospects of polymeric MNs with applications pertinent to healthcare, by exclusively focusing on the procurable literature over the last decade.

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          Most cited references123

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          Anomalous collapses of Nares Strait ice arches leads to enhanced export of Arctic sea ice

          The ice arches that usually develop at the northern and southern ends of Nares Strait play an important role in modulating the export of Arctic Ocean multi-year sea ice. The Arctic Ocean is evolving towards an ice pack that is younger, thinner, and more mobile and the fate of its multi-year ice is becoming of increasing interest. Here, we use sea ice motion retrievals from Sentinel-1 imagery to report on the recent behavior of these ice arches and the associated ice fluxes. We show that the duration of arch formation has decreased over the past 20 years, while the ice area and volume fluxes along Nares Strait have both increased. These results suggest that a transition is underway towards a state where the formation of these arches will become atypical with a concomitant increase in the export of multi-year ice accelerating the transition towards a younger and thinner Arctic ice pack.
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            Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials

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              Transdermal drug delivery.

              Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin's barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase its impact on medicine.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                JFBOAD
                Journal of Functional Biomaterials
                JFB
                MDPI AG
                2079-4983
                June 2022
                June 15 2022
                : 13
                : 2
                : 81
                Article
                10.3390/jfb13020081
                35735936
                fc30b9bb-f96c-4d31-8079-8bfe4063a332
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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