The bioenergetic response of B lymphocytes is subject to rapid changes following antigen encounter in order to provide ATP and anabolic precursors necessary to support growth. However, the pathways involved in glucose acquisition and metabolism are unknown. We find that B lymphocytes rapidly increase glucose uptake and glycolysis following B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) crosslinking. Inhibition of glycolysis blocks BCR-mediated growth. Prior to S-phase entry, glucose metabolism shifts from primarily glycolytic to include the pentose phosphate pathway. BCR-induced glucose utilization is dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) activity as evidenced by inhibition of glucose uptake and glycolysis with LY294002 treatment of normal B cells and impaired glucose utilization in B cells deficient in the PI-3K regulatory subunit p85alpha. Activation of Akt is sufficient to increase glucose utilization in B cells. We find that glucose utilization is inhibited by coengagement of the BCR and FcgammaRIIB, suggesting that limiting glucose metabolism may represent an important mechanism underlying FcgammaRIIB-mediated growth arrest. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that both growth-promoting BCR signaling and growth-inhibitory FcgammaRIIB signaling modulate glucose energy metabolism. Manipulation of these pathways may prove to be useful in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders, wherein clonal expansion of B lymphocytes plays a role.