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      Effect of Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation in Men on Semen Quality and Live Birth Among Couples Undergoing Infertility Treatment : A Randomized Clinical Trial

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          Abstract

          Dietary supplements marketed for male fertility commonly contain folic acid and zinc based on limited prior evidence for improving semen quality. However, no large-scale trial has examined the efficacy of this therapy for improving semen quality or live birth.

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          Most cited references 23

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          A nearly continuous measure of birth weight for gestational age using a United States national reference

          Background Fully understanding the determinants and sequelae of fetal growth requires a continuous measure of birth weight adjusted for gestational age. Published United States reference data, however, provide estimates only of the median and lowest and highest 5th and 10th percentiles for birth weight at each gestational age. The purpose of our analysis was to create more continuous reference measures of birth weight for gestational age for use in epidemiologic analyses. Methods We used data from the most recent nationwide United States Natality datasets to generate multiple reference percentiles of birth weight at each completed week of gestation from 22 through 44 weeks. Gestational age was determined from last menstrual period. We analyzed data from 6,690,717 singleton infants with recorded birth weight and sex born to United States resident mothers in 1999 and 2000. Results Birth weight rose with greater gestational age, with increasing slopes during the third trimester and a leveling off beyond 40 weeks. Boys had higher birth weights than girls, later born children higher weights than firstborns, and infants born to non-Hispanic white mothers higher birth weights than those born to non-Hispanic black mothers. These results correspond well with previously published estimates reporting limited percentiles. Conclusions Our method provides comprehensive reference values of birth weight at 22 through 44 completed weeks of gestation, derived from broadly based nationwide data. Other approaches require assumptions of normality or of a functional relationship between gestational age and birth weight, which may not be appropriate. These data should prove useful for researchers investigating the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth.
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            Trends in Dietary Supplement Use Among US Adults From 1999-2012.

            Dietary supplements are commonly used by US adults; yet, little is known about recent trends in supplement use.
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              Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis.

              To review the mechanisms responsible for DNA fragmentation in human sperm, including those occurring during spermatogenesis and transport through the reproductive tract. The mechanisms examined include: apoptosis in the seminiferous tubule epithelium, defects in chromatin remodeling during the process of spermiogenesis, oxygen radical-induced DNA damage during sperm migration from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis, the activation of sperm caspases and endonucleases, damage induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the effect of environmental toxicants. The different tests currently used for sperm DNA fragmentation analysis and the factors that determine the predictive value of sperm DNA fragmentation testing and their implications in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility are also discussed. Finally, we also scrutinize how the presence in the embryonic genome of DNA strand breaks or modifications of DNA nucleotides inherited from the paternal genome could impact the embryo and offspring. In particular we discuss how abnormal sperm could be dealt with by the oocyte and how sperm DNA abnormalities, which have not been satisfactorily repaired by the oocyte after fertilization, may interfere with normal embryo and fetal development. Sperm DNA can be modified through various mechanisms. The integrity of the paternal genome is therefore of paramount importance in the initiation and maintenance of a viable pregnancy both in a natural conception and in assisted reproduction. The need to diagnose sperm at a nuclear level is an area that needs further understanding so that we can improve treatment of the infertile couple. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JAMA
                JAMA
                American Medical Association (AMA)
                0098-7484
                January 07 2020
                January 07 2020
                : 323
                : 1
                : 35
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland
                [2 ]Emmes Company LLC, Rockville, Maryland
                [3 ]Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
                [4 ]Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
                [5 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City
                [6 ]Center for Reconstructive Urology and Men’s Health, Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
                [7 ]Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
                [8 ]Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland
                Article
                10.1001/jama.2019.18714
                6990807
                31910279
                © 2020

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