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      MINERÍA DE HEMATITA EN LA COSTA SUR DEL PERÚ: INVESTIGACIONES ARQUEOLÓGICAS EN MINA PRIMAVERA Translated title: HEMATITE MINING ON THE SOUTH COAST OF PERU: ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT MINA PRIMAVERA

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          Abstract

          A pesar que la minería es una actividad crítica para obtener materiales primas, se reconoce poco sobre la minería en los Andes prehispánicos. En este artículo presentamos evidencia de actividad minera antigua desde Mina Primavera, una mina antigua bien preservada de Nasca, costa sur de Perú, con fechas de explotación principalmente entre el periodo Intermedio Temprano (1-750 d.C.) y el Horizonte Medio (750-1.000 d.C.). Nuestras excavaciones proveen evidencia de extracción y proceso de hematita -usada en ofrendas y como pigmentos-, pero también evidencia de rituales que occurieron en la mina. Discutimos las excavaciones y nuestras interpretaciones de los artefactos y hallazgos que se han encontrado.

          Translated abstract

          Despite the fact that mining is a critical activity to obtain raw materials, very little is known about mining in the prehispanic Andes. In this paper we present evidence of ancient mining activities from Mina Primavera, a well-preserved hematite mine from Nasca, south coast of Peru dating primarily to the Early Intermediate Period (ca. A.D. 1-750) and to the Middle Horizon (ca. A.D. 750-1,000). Our excavations provide evidence not only for the extraction and processing of hematite -used in offerings and as pigments- but also provide evidence for rituals that took place in the mine. We discuss excavations conducted within the mine over several seasons, as well as our interpretations of artifacts and features found.

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          The devil and commodity fetishism in South America

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            STYLE AND TIME IN THE MIDDLE HORIZON

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              The Thorny Oyster and the Voice of God: Spondylus and Strombus in Andean Prehistory

              An exchange network based on long-distance export of Spondylus and Strombus, two mollusks native to coastal Ecuador, united the sierra and coast of both Ecuador and Peru during a long period of Andean prehistory. The gradual expansion of the export area is sketched, using evidence from three successive periods: (A) 2800 to 1100 B.C., (B) 1100 to 100 B.C., and (C) 100 B.C. to A.D. 1532. Each of these periods corresponds not only to an enlargement of the exchange sphere, but also to a striking change in the sociocultural status and role of the two shellfish in highland Ecuador and in Peru. This series of qualitative changes is related to evolutionary sociopolitical developments in the central Andes. Chávin is seen as a pristine state, linked to the later Huari and Inca empires through their common use of Spondylus and Strombus shells as symbols of the oracles that were important integrative mechanisms in the evolution toward large-scale societies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                chungara
                Chungará (Arica)
                Chungará (Arica)
                Universidad de Tarapacá<br>Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas<br> (Arica )
                0717-7356
                March 2013
                : 45
                : 1
                : 131-142
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Purdue University USA
                [2 ] Université de Montreal Canada
                [3 ] Arqueocare Peru
                [4 ] University of California USA
                Article
                S0717-73562013000100006
                10.4067/S0717-73562013000100006

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ANTHROPOLOGY

                Anthropology

                hematita, Nasca, Wari, hematite, minería, Mining

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