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      Tenofovir alafenamide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: design, development, and place in therapy

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          Abstract

          Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. TAF has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HBV replication at a low dose, with high intracellular concentration and more than 90% lower systemic TFV concentration than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In two randomized, double-blind, multinational, Phase 3, non-inferiority trials for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients (primary analysis: 48 weeks), TAF 25 mg orally once-daily was not inferior to TDF 300 mg in achieving an HBV DNA level <29 IU/mL at week 48. No amino-acid substitutions associated with viral breakthrough were detected by deep sequencing, and no resistance to TAF was found through week 96. In addition, no difference in the frequency of HBeAg or hepatitis B surface antigen loss was observed. However, TAF was associated with a significantly higher ALT normalization rate than was TDF, based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria (male: ALT ≤30 U/L and female: ALT ≤19 U/L). An analysis of renal safety showed that patients treated with TAF had a significantly lower decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate level than did patients treated with TDF. Similarly, the declines of hip and spine bone mineral density were significantly less in the TAF group. These trends of efficacy and renal/bone safety continued through week 96. Longer term follow-up and real-world data will be required to determine if the differences in viral/biochemical response and renal/bone safety seen with TAF in comparison with TDF are clinically relevant.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Peginterferon Alfa-2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.

          Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B are suboptimal. In the search for improved therapies, we compared the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa plus lamivudine, pegylated interferon alfa without lamivudine, and lamivudine alone for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B. A total of 814 patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B received either peginterferon alfa-2a (180 microg once weekly) plus oral placebo, peginterferon alfa-2a plus lamivudine (100 mg daily), or lamivudine alone. The majority of patients in the study were Asian (87 percent). Most patients were infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype B or C. Patients were treated for 48 weeks and followed for an additional 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of follow-up, significantly more patients who received peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy or peginterferon alfa-2a plus lamivudine than those who received lamivudine monotherapy had HBeAg seroconversion (32 percent vs. 19 percent [P<0.001] and 27 percent vs. 19 percent [P=0.02], respectively) or HBV DNA levels below 100,000 copies per milliliter (32 percent vs. 22 percent [P=0.01] and 34 percent vs. 22 percent [P=0.003], respectively). Sixteen patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a (alone or in combination) had hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion, as compared with 0 in the group receiving lamivudine alone (P=0.001). The most common adverse events were those known to occur with therapies based on interferon alfa. Serious adverse events occurred in 4 percent, 6 percent, and 2 percent of patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy, combination therapy, and lamivudine monotherapy, respectively. Two patients receiving lamivudine monotherapy had irreversible liver failure after the cessation of treatment--one underwent liver transplantation, and the other died. In patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, peginterferon alfa-2a offers superior efficacy over lamivudine, on the basis of HBeAg seroconversion, HBV DNA suppression, and HBsAg seroconversion.
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            Association of nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy with reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide cohort study.

            Treatment for hepatitis B virus infection reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the long-term protective effects for subgroups of patients with chronic hepatitis B are unclear. We conducted a retrospective nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2010). Cumulative incidences were calculated and multivariable analyses were carried out after adjusting for competing mortality. Propensity scores were used to match 21,595 patients with chronic hepatitis B who received nucleoside analogue therapy for at least 90 days (treated cohort) with 21,595 untreated patients with chronic hepatitis B (controls), who received hepatoprotectants for at least 90 days. Data were collected from the treated cohort for a mean period of 3.46 years and from controls for 5.24 years. The treated cohort had a significantly lower 7-year incidence of HCC (7.32%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.77%-7.87%) than controls (22.7%; 95% CI, 22.1%-23.3%; P < .001). After adjusting for competing mortality and other confounders, nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment was associated with a reduced risk of HCC, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.37 (95% CI, 0.34-0.39; P < .001). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment and reduced risk of HCC. Age, sex, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus modified this association. Based on a retrospective, nationwide study in Taiwan, nucleoside analogue therapy use is associated with reduced risk of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Tenofovir and entecavir are the most effective antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analyses.

              The relative efficacies of licensed antiviral therapies for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in randomized controlled trials have not been determined. We evaluated the relative efficacies of the first 12 months of CHB treatments. Drugs evaluated were lamivudine, pegylated interferon, adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine, and tenofovir, as monotherapies and combination therapies, in treatment-naive individuals. Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of the first 12 months of therapy in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and/or HBeAg-negative patients with CHB published in English before October 31, 2009. Bayesian mixed treatment comparisons were used to calculate the odds ratios, including 95% credible intervals and predicted probabilities of surrogate outcomes to determine the relative effects of each treatment. In HBeAg-positive patients, tenofovir was most effective in inducing undetectable levels of HBV DNA (predicted probability, 88%), normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (66%), HBeAg seroconversion (20%), and hepatitis B surface antigen loss (5%); it ranked third in histologic improvement of the liver (53%). Entecavir was most effective in improving liver histology (56%), second for inducing undetectable levels of HBV DNA (61%) and normalization of ALT levels (70%), and third in loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (1%). In HBeAg-negative patients, tenofovir was the most effective in inducing undetectable levels of HBV DNA (94%) and improving liver histology (65%); it ranked second for normalization of ALT levels (73%). In the first year of treatment for CHB, tenofovir and entecavir are the most potent oral antiviral agents for HBeAg-positive patients; tenofovir is most effective for HBeAg-negative patients. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                06 November 2017
                : 11
                : 3197-3204
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of General Internal Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan
                [2 ]Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mindie H Nguyen, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University Medical Center, 750 Welch Road, Suite 210, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA, Tel +1 650 498 5691, Fax +1 650 498 5692, Email mindiehn@ 123456stanford.edu
                Norihiro Furusyo, Department of General Internal Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan, Tel +81 92 642 5909, Fax +81 92 642 5210, Email furusyo@ 123456gim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp
                Article
                dddt-11-3197
                10.2147/DDDT.S126742
                5683768
                © 2017 Ogawa et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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