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      Apatite Glass-Ceramics: A Review

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      Frontiers in Materials

      Frontiers Media SA

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          Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis.

          Porosity and pore size of biomaterial scaffolds play a critical role in bone formation in vitro and in vivo. This review explores the state of knowledge regarding the relationship between porosity and pore size of biomaterials used for bone regeneration. The effect of these morphological features on osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as relationships to mechanical properties of the scaffolds, are addressed. In vitro, lower porosity stimulates osteogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and forcing cell aggregation. In contrast, in vivo, higher porosity and pore size result in greater bone ingrowth, a conclusion that is supported by the absence of reports that show enhanced osteogenic outcomes for scaffolds with low void volumes. However, this trend results in diminished mechanical properties, thereby setting an upper functional limit for pore size and porosity. Thus, a balance must be reached depending on the repair, rate of remodeling and rate of degradation of the scaffold material. Based on early studies, the minimum requirement for pore size is considered to be approximately 100 microm due to cell size, migration requirements and transport. However, pore sizes >300 microm are recommended, due to enhanced new bone formation and the formation of capillaries. Because of vascularization, pore size has been shown to affect the progression of osteogenesis. Small pores favored hypoxic conditions and induced osteochondral formation before osteogenesis, while large pores, that are well-vascularized, lead to direct osteogenesis (without preceding cartilage formation). Gradients in pore sizes are recommended for future studies focused on the formation of multiple tissues and tissue interfaces. New fabrication techniques, such as solid-free form fabrication, can potentially be used to generate scaffolds with morphological and mechanical properties more selectively designed to meet the specificity of bone-repair needs.
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            Solutions able to reproduce in vivo surface-structure changes in bioactive glass-ceramic A-W.

            High-strength bioactive glass-ceramic A-W was soaked in various acellular aqueous solutions different in ion concentrations and pH. After soaking for 7 and 30 days, surface structural changes of the glass-ceramic were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, thin-film x-ray diffraction, and scanning electronmicroscopic observations, in comparison with in vivo surface structural changes. So-called Tris buffer solution, pure water buffered with trishydroxymethyl-aminomethane, which had been used by various workers as a "simulated body fluid," did not reproduce the in vivo surface structural changes, i.e., apatite formation on the surface. A solution, ion concentrations and pH of which are almost equal to those of the human blood plasma--i.e., Na+ 142.0, K+ 5.0, Mg2+ 1.5, Ca2+ 2.5, Cl- 148.8, HCO3- 4.2 and PO4(2-) 1.0 mM and buffered at pH 7.25 with the trishydroxymethyl-aminomethane--most precisely reproduced in vivo surface structure change. This shows that careful selection of simulated body fluid is required for in vitro experiments. The results also support the concept that the apatite phase on the surface of glass-ceramic A-W is formed by a chemical reaction of the glass-ceramic with the Ca2+, HPO4(2-), and OH- ions in the body fluid.
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              The effects of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro.

              Bioactive glasses (BG) which contain strontium have the potential to combine the known bone regenerative properties of BG with the anabolic and anti-catabolic effects of strontium cations. Here we created a BG series (SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO) in which 0-100% of the calcium was substituted by strontium and tested their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. We show that ions released from strontium-substituted BG enhance metabolic activity in osteoblasts. They also inhibit osteoclast activity by both reducing tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity and inhibiting resorption of calcium phosphate films in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, osteoblasts cultured in contact with BG show increased proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity with increasing strontium substitution, while osteoclasts adopt typical resorption morphologies. These results suggest that similarly to the osteoporosis drug strontium ranelate, strontium-substituted BG may promote an anabolic effect on osteoblasts and an anti-catabolic effect on osteoclasts. These effects, when combined with the advantages of BG such as controlled ion release and delivery versatility, may make strontium-substituted BG an effective biomaterial choice for a range of bone regeneration therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Materials
                Front. Mater.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-8016
                January 09 2017
                January 09 2017
                : 3
                10.3389/fmats.2016.00059
                © 2017

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