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      Blood Pressure-Independent Effect of Long-Term Treatment with the Soluble Heme-Independent Guanylyl Cyclase Activator HMR1766 on Progression in a Model of Noninflammatory Chronic Renal Damage

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          Abstract

          Nitric oxide formation is impaired in chronic renal failure. The renoprotective effects of a nonhypotensive dose of HMR1766, a direct activator of the heme enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase was studied in comparison to an ACE-i in the remnant kidney model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) or sham operated (sham) and left untreated or started on treatment with HMR1766 or ACE-i in non-hypotensive doses. BP, albumin excretion and parameters of renal damage were analyzed. After a 12-week study, urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher in untreated SNX than in sham; this increase was prevented by ACE-i and ameliorated by HMR1766. Relative kidney and left ventricular weight were significantly higher in untreated SNX compared to sham; these changes were completely prevented by HMR1766. In untreated SNX, glomerulosclerosis (1.02 ± 0.13) was significantly higher than in sham (0.12 ± 0.04), SNX+HMR1766 (0.27 ± 0.04) and SNX+ACE-i (0.46 ± 0.06). Tubulointerstitial changes went in parallel. Increased glomerular cell number after SNX (71.5 ± 14 vs. 60 ± 7.3 in sham) was prevented by HMR1766 (55.7 ± 7.3), but not by ACE-i (66.6 ± 9). The results document beneficial BP-independent HMR1766 effects on kidney structure and urinary albumin excretion in a noninflammatory model of renal failure and may argue for a novel therapeutic principle.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Asymmetric dimethylarginine and progression of chronic kidney disease: the mild to moderate kidney disease study.

          Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play an important role in progression of renal damage. The hypothesis that the endogenous NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is involved in progression of kidney disease was tested. Plasma ADMA concentrations and other putative progression factors were assessed in 227 relatively young patients (45.7 +/- 12.6 yr) with nondiabetic kidney diseases and mild to moderate renal failure. Progression assessed as doubling of serum creatinine and/or renal replacement therapy was evaluated prospectively. Baseline plasma ADMA concentrations in renal patients correlated significantly with serum creatinine (r = 0.595), GFR (r = -0.591), age (r = 0.281), and proteinuria (r = 0.184; all P < 0.01). Patients who reached an end point during follow-up were significantly older (P < 0.05) and had significantly higher creatinine, ADMA, and parathyroid hormone blood concentrations and protein excretion rates at baseline, whereas GFR and hemoglobin were significantly lower (all P < 0.01). Cox regression analysis revealed baseline serum creatinine (odds ratio 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61 to 2.49; P < 0.001) and ADMA (odds ratio 1.47; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.93 for an increment of 0.1 mumol/L; P < 0.006) as independent predictors of disease progression. In patients with ADMA levels above median, progression was significantly faster (P < 0.0001), and their mean follow-up time to a progression end point was 52.8 mo (95% CI 46.9 to 58.8) as compared with 71.6 mo (95% CI 66.2 to 76.9) in patients with ADMA levels below the median. The endogenous NO synthase inhibitor ADMA is significantly associated with progression of nondiabetic kidney diseases. Lowering plasma ADMA concentrations may be a novel therapeutic target to prevent progressive renal impairment.
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            Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase reverses experimental pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling.

            Severe pulmonary hypertension is a disabling disease with high mortality, characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and right heart hypertrophy. Using wild-type and homozygous endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3(-/-)) knockout mice with pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia and rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, we examined whether the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator Bay41-2272 or the sGC activator Bay58-2667 could reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. Both Bay41-2272 and Bay58-2667 dose-dependently inhibited the pressor response of acute hypoxia in the isolated perfused lung system. When wild-type (NOS3(+/+)) or NOS3(-/-) mice were housed under 10% oxygen conditions for 21 or 35 days, both strains developed pulmonary hypertension, right heart hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular remodeling, demonstrated by an increase in fully muscularized peripheral pulmonary arteries. Treatment of wild-type mice with the activator of sGC, Bay58-2667 (10 mg/kg per day), or the stimulator of sGC, Bay41-2272 (10 mg/kg per day), after full establishment of pulmonary hypertension from day 21 to day 35 significantly reduced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and structural remodeling of the lung vasculature. In contrast, only minor efficacy of chronic sGC activator therapies was noted in NOS3(-/-) mice. In monocrotaline-injected rats with established severe pulmonary hypertension, both compounds significantly reversed hemodynamic and structural changes. Activation of sGC reverses hemodynamic and structural changes associated with monocrotaline- and chronic hypoxia-induced experimental pulmonary hypertension. This effect is partially dependent on endogenous nitric oxide generated by NOS3.
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              The role of oxidative stress-altered lipoprotein structure and function and microinflammation on cardiovascular risk in patients with minor renal dysfunction.

              Cardiovascular disease is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As renal function fails, many patients become progressively malnourished, as evidenced by reduced levels of albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin. Malnourished patients have increased levels of C reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and concomitant cardiovascular disease when they reach end stage. Many diseases that cause CKD, diabetes, and hypertension are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Thus the direct effect of renal failure per se directly contributing to the inflammation-malnutrition-atherosclerosis paradigm is not completely established in early stages of CKD. Some aspects of progressive renal failure, however, cause changes in plasma composition and endothelial structure and function that favor vascular injury. As renal function fails, hepatic apo A-I synthesis decreases and HDL levels fall. HDL is an important antioxidant and defends the endothelium from the effects of cytokines. Inflammation causes further structural and functional abnormalities in HDL. Apolipoprotein C III (apo C III), a competitive inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase is increased in CKD. Serum triglyceride levels increase as a result of accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) comprising VLDL and chylomicron remnants. These impede vascular relaxation and are associated with cardiovascular disease. Activation of the renin angiotensin axis is a component of many renal diseases and adaptation to loss of renal mass. Angiotensin II (AngII) activates NADPH oxidases, leading to production of the superoxide anion and decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO), further impairing vascular function. H(2)O(2), produced as a consequence of superoxide dismutation, stimulates vascular cell proliferation and hypertrophy. Leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase functions as an "NO Oxidase" in the inflamed vasculature and contributes to decreased NO bioavailability and compromised vascular reactivity. The changes in lipoprotein composition and structure as well as AngII-mediated alterations in endothelial function amplify the effect of subsequent inflammatory events.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                July 2007
                15 June 2007
                : 30
                : 4
                : 224-233
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatrics and bPathology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, cDialysecentrum Bayreuth/Pegnitz/Kemnath, and Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, dKfH Weiden, and eSanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany
                Article
                104091 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:224–233
                10.1159/000104091
                17575468
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 34, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Paper

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