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      A review of the taxonomy of spiny-backed orb-weaving spiders of the subfamily Gasteracanthinae (Araneae, Araneidae) in Thailand

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          Abstract

          Spiny-backed orb-weaving spiders of the subfamily Gasteracanthinae are broadly distributed in the Old World. Despite their use as a model species in biology, evolution, and behavior because of their extraordinary characteristics, the systematics of this group of spiders are still poorly understood. This study elucidates the systematics of Gasteracanthinae in Thailand based on morphological and molecular-based analyses. In total, seven species from three genera, namely Gasteracantha , Macracantha , and Thelacantha , were recorded in Thailand. Shape of abdominal spines, pattern of sigilla, and female genitalia are significant characters for species identification. In contrast, coloration shows highly intraspecific variation in most species within Gasteracanthinae . A phylogenetic tree based on partial sequences of COI, 16S, and H3 genes recovered Gasteracanthinae as a monophyletic group and supports the existence of three clades. Gasteracantha hasselti is placed as a sister taxon to Macracantha arcuata . Hence, we propose to transfer G. hasselti to Macracantha. Moreover, molecular species delimitation analyses (ABGD, bPTP, and GMYC) using 675 bp of COI gene support all nominal species, with evidence of possible additional cryptic species.

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          Most cited references 93

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

            The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

               Robert Edgar (2004)
              We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                16 April 2021
                : 1032
                : 17-62
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Animal Systematics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand Animal Systematics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ekgachai Jeratthitikul ( Ekgachai.jer@ 123456mahidol.edu )

                Academic editor: I. Agnarsson

                Article
                62001
                10.3897/zookeys.1032.62001
                8065025
                33958915
                Kongkit Macharoenboon, Warut Siriwut, Ekgachai Jeratthitikul

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Araneae
                Araneidae
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                Asia

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