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      Effect of Pitavastatin on Urinary Liver-Type Fatty-Acid-Binding Protein in Patients with Nondiabetic Mild Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Background/Aim: Urinary liver-type fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a useful clinical marker in the monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with tubulointerstitial damage. Statins have been shown to be effective in the treatment of renal disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pitavastatin, a newly developed statin, modulates the urinary L-FABP levels in normolipidemic patients with CKD. Methods: Thirty normolipidemic mild CKD patients (18 males and 12 females, mean age 40 years, mean serum creatinine level 1.0 mg/dl) were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) pitavastatin (1 mg/day, n = 15) and (2) placebo (n = 15). Urinary protein and urinary L-FABP levels were measured before the initiation of treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. Twenty age-matched healthy subjects were also studied as controls. Results: Before treatment, the urinary L-FABP levels in 30 CKD patients (84.0 ± 68.5 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (6.4 ± 4.2 µg/g creatinine; p < 0.001). Pitavastatin slightly reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, but this was not statistically significant. However, pitavastatin reduced the urinary protein excretion from 1.8 to 1.0 g/day (p < 0.01), while the urinary L-FABP levels fell from 88.5 ± 70.5 to 28.0 ± 16.5 µg/g creatinine (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The present data suggest that pitavastatin ameliorates tubulointerstitial damage in CKD patients independent of the lipid-lowering effect.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Effect of lipid reduction on the progression of renal disease: a meta-analysis.

          It has been proposed that hyperlipidemia contributes to the progression of renal disease. A large trial has not been performed; however, a number of small, controlled trials have been reported. We examined the effects of antilipemic agents on glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria in patients with renal disease. We used Medline, abstracts from scientific meetings, and bibliographies from recent reviews and scientific reports to locate pertinent studies. Thirteen prospective controlled trials examining the effects of antilipemic agents on renal function, proteinuria, or albuminuria were included. Studies were published as full reports or abstracts and were at least three months in duration. For five of the studies, individual patient data were obtained. Other summary data were independently extracted from the published reports by two investigators and included study quality, subject characteristics, cause of renal disease, change in serum cholesterol, blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and albuminuria. There was a lower rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate with treatment compared with controls (treated controls, 0.156 mL/min/month; 95% CI, 0.026 to 0. 285 mL/min/month, P = 0.008). The study results were statistically homogeneous, and in a regression analysis, the effect of treatment on glomerular filtration rate did not correlate with study quality, the percentage change in cholesterol, the type of lipid-lowering agent, or the cause of renal disease. However, longer follow-up correlated with the amount of improvement in glomerular filtration rate from treatment (P = 0.007). There was a tendency for a favorable effect of treatment on protein or albumin excretion [Ln (treatment) - Ln (control) = -0.248, 95% CI, -0.562 to 0.064, P = 0. 077]. However, these results were statistically heterogeneous between studies (P < 0.001). No obvious explanation for this heterogeneity was apparent in a regression analysis examining potential reasons for differences in study results. Lipid reduction may preserve glomerular filtration rate and may decrease proteinuria in patients with renal disease.
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            Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase reduce receptor-mediated endocytosis in human kidney proximal tubular cells.

            The proximal tubular cells of the kidney are responsible for reabsorption of proteins from the tubular lumen. In a study using Opossum kidney (OK) cells, receptor-mediated protein endocytosis was reduced by statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, which are widely used for therapeutic reduction of plasma cholesterol levels. To explore the possible clinical relevance of the observations in OK cells, protein endocytosis in human kidney tubular cells was investigated in the presence and absence of statins. The uptake of FITC-labeled albumin in these cultures of human kidney tubular cells was investigated by microscopy, flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry. Protein uptake occurred selectively into proximal tubular cells while it was absent in distal tubular/collecting duct cells. Three statins (simvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin) significantly inhibited the uptake of protein in a concentration-dependent way. This inhibitory effect of statins could be prevented by the co-addition of mevalonate, the product of HMG-CoA reductase. This effect was not the result of a statin-induced cytotoxicity since cell-viability was unaffected. Finally, it was demonstrated that statins strongly inhibited cholesterol synthesis in the human kidney tubular cells. These data suggest that statins have the potential to inhibit albumin uptake by the human proximal nephron as a result of inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in the proximal tubule cells. Taken into account the data of the accompanying manuscript this inhibitory effect most probably results from a reduced prenylation of some proteins critically involved in endocytosis. It is suggested that these data help to explain the occurrence of proteinuria in some patients treated with high statin doses.
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              Pravastatin treatment attenuates interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of chronic cyclosporine-induced nephropathy.

              We investigated the effects of pravastatin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, on interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, using an animal model of chronic cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephropathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a low-salt diet (0.05% sodium) and treated daily for 1 or 4 wk with vehicle (olive oil; 1 ml/kg sc), CsA (15 mg/kg sc), or both CsA and pravastatin (5 or 20 mg/kg in the drinking water). Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of pravastatin were studied by evaluating the concentrations of the inflammatory mediators osteopontin (OPN) and C-reactive protein (CRP), of fibrotic cytokine-transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, and the presence of ED-1-positive cells (macrophages). In addition, renal function, serum lipid levels, histopathology (arteriolopathy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis), and the expression of the vasoactive factors endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and renin protein were also compared for different treatment groups. Pravastatin induced dose-dependent decreases in the expression of OPN, intrarenal CRP, and TGF-beta1, and in the numbers of ED-1-positive cells at 1 and 4 wk. These were accompanied by a significant attenuation of tubulointerstitial fibrosis at 4 wk. The downregulation of eNOS protein expression in CsA-treated rat kidney was markedly upregulated by pravastatin treatment, although intrarenal renin expression was unaffected. Renal dysfunction induced by CsA significantly improved with administration of pravastatin at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Neither CsA nor pravastatin influenced serum lipid or high-sensitivity CRP levels in the treatment groups. Thus in chronic CsA nephropathy, pravastatin effectively abrogates the progression of tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. This may support the clinical use of pravastatin.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                April 2006
                05 April 2006
                : 26
                : 1
                : 82-86
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Shinmatsudo Central General Hospital, Chiba, bResearch Unit for Organ Regeneration, Riken Kobe Institute, Kobe, and cDepartment of Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine, Saga University Faculty of Medicine, Saga, Japan
                91956 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:82–86
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 15, Pages: 5
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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