Modern biological research has produced increasing number of promising therapeutic possibilities for medical treatment. These include for example growth factors, monoclonal antibodies, gene knockdown methods, gene therapy, surgical transplantations and tissue engineering. Ocular application of these possibilities involves drug delivery in many forms. Ocular drug delivery is hampered by the barriers protecting the eye. This review presents an overview of the essential factors in ocular pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacological future challenges in ophthalmology.