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      The aqueous extract of brucea javanica reduces tumorigenicity of human lung cancer tumorspheres

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          Abstract

          Aim: Therapy to overcome drug resistance by modulating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a viable approach to suppress the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A previous study demonstrated that the seeds of an aqueous Brucea javanica (BJ) (L.) Merr (Simaroubaceae) extract containing quassinoid mixtures effectively inhibited the growth and alleviated tumorigenesis in H1975 cells of NSCLC by targeting T790M/L858R EGFR. This study aimed to further determine whether the aqueous BJ extract affects the enriched H1975 spheroids in suspension culture and mouse xenograft tumor models.

          Methods: The spheroids of NSCLC adenocarcinoma H1975 cells were enriched in a serum-free media. The growth rate of sphere propagation by aqueous BJ extract was determined in suspended culture and in colony-formation assay. BJ extract was fed orally to nude mice bearing xenograft tumors. The resected tumors were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen assessment. Various markers were used to determine the pluripotency of tumors from mice treated with different concentrations of BJ extract.

          Results: BJ extract was demonstrated to be effective against the propagation of the enriched spheroids. In animal models, oral administration of the aqueous BJ extract reduced spheroid tumorigenicity. The alleviated growth of the established xenograft tumors can be attributed to the reduced drug resistance and induced apoptosis without distinct adverse effects. More evidence supports activated apoptotic death attenuated spheroid stemness of tumors.

          Conclusion: As an effective treatment regime to assuage lung cancer, the indigenous BJ extract promises to obliterate drug resistance and the growth of cancer stem cell tumors from NSCLC cells harboring T790M/L858R EGFR.

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          Most cited references33

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          The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells.

          The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key developmental program that is often activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. We here report that the induction of an EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLEs) results in the acquisition of mesenchymal traits and in the expression of stem-cell markers. Furthermore, we show that those cells have an increased ability to form mammospheres, a property associated with mammary epithelial stem cells. Independent of this, stem cell-like cells isolated from HMLE cultures form mammospheres and express markers similar to those of HMLEs that have undergone an EMT. Moreover, stem-like cells isolated either from mouse or human mammary glands or mammary carcinomas express EMT markers. Finally, transformed human mammary epithelial cells that have undergone an EMT form mammospheres, soft agar colonies, and tumors more efficiently. These findings illustrate a direct link between the EMT and the gain of epithelial stem cell properties.
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            Acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors is associated with a manifestation of stem cell-like properties in cancer cells.

            Acquired resistance to EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a critical problem in the treatment of lung cancer. Although several mechanisms have been shown to be responsible for acquired resistance, all mechanisms have not been uncovered. In this study, we investigated the molecular and cellular profiles of the acquired resistant cells to EGFR-TKI in EGFR-mutant lung cancers. Four EGFR-mutant cell lines were exposed to gefitinib by stepwise escalation and high-concentration exposure methods, and resistant sublines to gefitinib were established. The molecular profiles and cellular phenotypes of these resistant sublines were characterized. Although previously reported, alterations including secondary EGFR T790M mutation, MET amplification, and appearance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features were observed, these 2 drug-exposure methods revealed different resistance mechanisms. The resistant cells with EMT features exhibited downregulation of miRNA-200c by DNA methylation. Furthermore, the HCC827-derived subline characterized by the high-concentration exposure method exhibited not only EMT features but also stem cell-like properties, including aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression, increase of side-population, and self-renewal capability. Resistant sublines with stem cell-like properties were resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents but equally sensitive to histone deacetylase and proteasome inhibitors, compared with their parental cells. ALDH1A1 was upregulated in clinical samples with acquired resistance to gefitinib. In conclusion, our study indicates that the manner of EGFR-TKI exposure influences the mechanism of acquired resistance and the appearance of stem cell-like property with EGFR-TKI treatment. ©2013 AACR.
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              Cancer stem cells in drug resistant lung cancer: Targeting cell surface markers and signaling pathways.

              Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Despite advances in anti-cancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies, five-year survival rates remain poor (<15%). Inherent and acquired resistance has been identified as a key factor in reducing the efficacy of current cytotoxic therapies in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There is growing evidence suggesting that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a critical role in tumor progression, metastasis and drug resistance. Similar to normal tissue stem cells, CSCs exhibit significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. While CSCs have been reported in a wide spectrum of human tumors, the biology of CSCs in NSCLC remain elusive. Current anti-cancer therapies fail to eradicate CSC clones and instead, favor the expansion of the CSC pool and select for resistant CSC clones thereby resulting in treatment resistance and subsequent relapse in these patients. The identification of CSC-specific marker subsets and the targeted therapeutic destruction of CSCs remains a significant challenge. Strategies aimed at efficient targeting of CSCs are becoming increasingly important for monitoring the progress of cancer therapy and for evaluating new therapeutic approaches. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cancer stem cell markers in treatment-resistant lung cancer cells and the signaling cascades activated by these cells to maintain their stem-like properties. Recent progress in CSC-targeted drug development and the current status of novel agents in clinical trials are also reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Drug Resist
                Cancer Drug Resist
                CDR
                Cancer Drug Resistance
                OAE Publishing Inc.
                2578-532X
                2021
                13 August 2021
                : 4
                : 4
                : 866-880
                Affiliations
                1School of Life Science, Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan.
                2Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Prof. Kang Fang, School of Life Science, Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec 4, Ting-Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan. E-mail: kangfang8150@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Godefridus J. Peters | Copy Editor: Yue-Yue Zhang | Production Editor: Yue-Yue Zhang

                Article
                10.20517/cdr.2021.58
                8992453
                35582384
                fc6b04b3-42da-40a3-bb82-4af49cd07e18
                © The Author(s) 2021.

                © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 25 June 2021
                : 04 August 2021
                : 12 August 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Technology, Executive Yuan, ROC (MOST 104-2320-B-003-001)
                Funded by: National Taiwan Normal University (103T3040D2 and 104T3040C2)
                Categories
                Original Article

                brucea javanica,cancer stem cells,drug resistance,epidermal growth factor receptor,lung cancer,apoptosis

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