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      Multiple classes of chemical contaminants in soil from an e-waste disposal site in China: Occurrence and spatial distribution

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          The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and Mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.

          In June 2005, a World Health Organization (WHO)-International Programme on Chemical Safety expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin-like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were reevaluated. For this reevaluation process, the refined TEF database recently published by Haws et al. (2006, Toxicol. Sci. 89, 4-30) was used as a starting point. Decisions about a TEF value were made based on a combination of unweighted relative effect potency (REP) distributions from this database, expert judgment, and point estimates. Previous TEFs were assigned in increments of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, etc., but for this reevaluation, it was decided to use half order of magnitude increments on a logarithmic scale of 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, etc. Changes were decided by the expert panel for 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (TEF = 0.3), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (TEF = 0.03), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran (TEFs = 0.0003), 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorbiphenyl (PCB 81) (TEF = 0.0003), 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) (TEF = 0.03), and a single TEF value (0.00003) for all relevant mono-ortho-substituted PCBs. Additivity, an important prerequisite of the TEF concept was again confirmed by results from recent in vivo mixture studies. Some experimental evidence shows that non-dioxin-like aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists are able to impact the overall toxic potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds, and this needs to be investigated further. Certain individual and groups of compounds were identified for possible future inclusion in the TEF concept, including 3,4,4'-TCB (PCB 37), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, mixed polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyhalogenated naphthalenes, and polybrominated biphenyls. Concern was expressed about direct application of the TEF/total toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach to abiotic matrices, such as soil, sediment, etc., for direct application in human risk assessment. This is problematic as the present TEF scheme and TEQ methodology are primarily intended for estimating exposure and risks via oral ingestion (e.g., by dietary intake). A number of future approaches to determine alternative or additional TEFs were also identified. These included the use of a probabilistic methodology to determine TEFs that better describe the associated levels of uncertainty and "systemic" TEFs for blood and adipose tissue and TEQ for body burden.
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            Environmental contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, southeast China

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              Relevance of BFRs and thermal conditions on the formation pathways of brominated and brominated-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

              The widespread use of brominated flame-retarded products in the last two decades has resulted in an increasing presence of bromine in thermal processes such as waste combustion and accidental fires. Brominated and brominated-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs, PXDDs/PXDFs) are micropollutants of concern arising from such processes. The present review aims to evaluate the relevance of these compound classes in actual thermal processes. Four categories of thermal processes are discussed in this respect according to their potential for PBDD/PBDF and PXDD/PXDF generation: thermal stress, pyrolysis/gasification, insufficient combustion conditions and controlled combustion conditions. Under thermal stress situations, as they may occur in production or recycling processes, PBDDs/PBDFs precursors like polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) can have a relevant potential for PBDD/PBDF formation via a simple elimination. Under insufficient combustion conditions as they are present in, e.g. accidental fires and uncontrolled burning as well as gasification/pyrolysis processes, considerable amounts of PBDDs/PBDFs can be formed from BFRs, preferably via the precursor pathway. In contrast, under controlled combustion conditions, BFRs and PBDDs/PBDFs can be destroyed with high efficiency. The relevance of de novo synthesis of PXDDs/PXDFs is discussed for this condition. Providing a basis for the understanding of PXDD/PXDF formation in actual thermal processes, the present paper also summarises the formation pathways of brominated and brominated-chlorinated PXDDs/PXDFs from brominated flame retardants (BFRs) investigated during laboratory thermolysis experiments. Relevant mechanistic steps for PBDD/PBDF formation from brominated precursors are discussed including elimination reactions, condensation steps and debromination/hydrogenation reactions. In addition, chlorination/bromination and halogen exchange reactions are briefly discussed with respect for their relevance on the final distribution of PBDDs/PBDFs, mixed chlorinated PXDDs/PXDFs and PCDDs/PCDFs resulting from thermal processes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Science of The Total Environment
                Science of The Total Environment
                Elsevier BV
                00489697
                January 2021
                January 2021
                : 752
                : 141924
                Article
                10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141924
                fc6d52ec-525e-4f48-9cc5-56a3b0d3c0c4
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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