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      Call for Papers: Digital Diagnostic Techniques

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      Clinical Utility of Inflammatory and Nutritious Index as Therapeutic Prediction of Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Biomarkers for predicting the outcome of ipilimumab plus nivolumab (Nivo-Ipi) treatment in cancer patients have not been identified. Herein, we investigated the prognostic significance of inflammatory and nutritional markers in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving Nivo-Ipi. Methods: Our study retrospectively analyzed 101 patients with advanced NSCLC who received Nivo-Ipi at a single institution. Inflammatory and nutritional indices were correlated with patient outcomes and included the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI), and Glasgow prognostic score (GPS). Results: The NLR significantly correlated with the PLR, SII, PNI, ALI, and GPS. Regarding therapeutic efficacy, the NLR, SII, and PNI predicted a partial response, and all indices predicted progressive disease. In subgroup analyses, the SII, PNI, and ALI predicted the outcome of patients with adenocarcinoma, whereas only the PNI predicted the outcome of patients with non-adenocarcinoma. The PNI and SII were the most useful indices in patients with a programmed death ligand-1 expression level of <1% and ≥1%, respectively. Conclusion: The NLR, PLR, SII, PNI, ALI, and GPS were significantly associated with the outcome of Nivo-Ipi treatment in patients with NSCLC. The PNI was the most suitable marker regardless of histological type. The SII and PNI were the most promising markers for patients with and without PD-L1 expression, respectively.

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          Most cited references21

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          New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1).

          Assessment of the change in tumour burden is an important feature of the clinical evaluation of cancer therapeutics: both tumour shrinkage (objective response) and disease progression are useful endpoints in clinical trials. Since RECIST was published in 2000, many investigators, cooperative groups, industry and government authorities have adopted these criteria in the assessment of treatment outcomes. However, a number of questions and issues have arisen which have led to the development of a revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Evidence for changes, summarised in separate papers in this special issue, has come from assessment of a large data warehouse (>6500 patients), simulation studies and literature reviews. HIGHLIGHTS OF REVISED RECIST 1.1: Major changes include: Number of lesions to be assessed: based on evidence from numerous trial databases merged into a data warehouse for analysis purposes, the number of lesions required to assess tumour burden for response determination has been reduced from a maximum of 10 to a maximum of five total (and from five to two per organ, maximum). Assessment of pathological lymph nodes is now incorporated: nodes with a short axis of 15 mm are considered measurable and assessable as target lesions. The short axis measurement should be included in the sum of lesions in calculation of tumour response. Nodes that shrink to <10mm short axis are considered normal. Confirmation of response is required for trials with response primary endpoint but is no longer required in randomised studies since the control arm serves as appropriate means of interpretation of data. Disease progression is clarified in several aspects: in addition to the previous definition of progression in target disease of 20% increase in sum, a 5mm absolute increase is now required as well to guard against over calling PD when the total sum is very small. Furthermore, there is guidance offered on what constitutes 'unequivocal progression' of non-measurable/non-target disease, a source of confusion in the original RECIST guideline. Finally, a section on detection of new lesions, including the interpretation of FDG-PET scan assessment is included. Imaging guidance: the revised RECIST includes a new imaging appendix with updated recommendations on the optimal anatomical assessment of lesions. A key question considered by the RECIST Working Group in developing RECIST 1.1 was whether it was appropriate to move from anatomic unidimensional assessment of tumour burden to either volumetric anatomical assessment or to functional assessment with PET or MRI. It was concluded that, at present, there is not sufficient standardisation or evidence to abandon anatomical assessment of tumour burden. The only exception to this is in the use of FDG-PET imaging as an adjunct to determination of progression. As is detailed in the final paper in this special issue, the use of these promising newer approaches requires appropriate clinical validation studies.
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            Immunity, inflammation, and cancer.

            Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. This review outlines the principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development and discusses attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

              We assessed the efficacy and safety of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibition with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a phase 1 study. We also sought to define and validate an expression level of the PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) that is associated with the likelihood of clinical benefit. We assigned 495 patients receiving pembrolizumab (at a dose of either 2 mg or 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 3 weeks or 10 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks) to either a training group (182 patients) or a validation group (313 patients). We assessed PD-L1 expression in tumor samples using immunohistochemical analysis, with results reported as the percentage of neoplastic cells with staining for membranous PD-L1 (proportion score). Response was assessed every 9 weeks by central review. Common side effects that were attributed to pembrolizumab were fatigue, pruritus, and decreased appetite, with no clear difference according to dose or schedule. Among all the patients, the objective response rate was 19.4%, and the median duration of response was 12.5 months. The median duration of progression-free survival was 3.7 months, and the median duration of overall survival was 12.0 months. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells was selected as the cutoff from the training group. Among patients with a proportion score of at least 50% in the validation group, the response rate was 45.2%. Among all the patients with a proportion score of at least 50%, median progression-free survival was 6.3 months; median overall survival was not reached. Pembrolizumab had an acceptable side-effect profile and showed antitumor activity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy of pembrolizumab. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01295827.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OCL
                Oncology
                10.1159/issn.0030-2414
                Oncology
                Oncology
                S. Karger AG
                0030-2414
                1423-0232
                2024
                March 2024
                19 September 2023
                : 102
                : 3
                : 271-282
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan
                Author notes
                *Kyoichi Kaira, kkaira1970@yahoo.co.jp
                Article
                534169 Oncology 2024;102:271–282
                10.1159/000534169
                37725914
                fc6fc1e9-d787-4484-8032-f6307fe84087
                © 2023 S. Karger AG, Basel
                History
                : 13 August 2023
                : 13 September 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Our study did not get any research fund from the commercial and public sectors.
                Categories
                Research Article

                Medicine
                Inflammatory and nutritious index,Systemic immune-inflammation index,Prognostic nutritional index,Lung cancer,Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4,Programmed death-1

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