The clinical outcome of continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis (CAVHD), an alternative to continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) in our intensive care units (ICU) in Uppsala, was evaluated for 2 years. Forty-three patients were included. Pretreatment serum urea and creatinine levels (mean ± SD) were 36 ± 13 mmol/land 420 ± 147 μmol/l and during treatment, steady-state levels were 25 ± 10 mmol/land 333 ± 120 μmol/l respectively (p < 0.0001). On top of acute renal failure (ARF), some patients had multiple organ failure that made it necessary to use mechanical respiration (63%), vasopressor drugs (74%) and aortic balloon pump therapy (5%). The outcome of this treatment was 60% when overall survival was considered. Higher dialysate flow rates (i.e., 25 ml/min) were applied in some patients in whom serum urea levels were persistently rising. The result of this was a notable decrease in the urea and creatinine serum levels. From the results of this 2-year experience, we have found CAVHD a promising alternative to CAVH that can be used as a treatment of choice for ARF in critically ill ICU patients.