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Coastal deformation and great subduction earthquakes, Isla Santa Maria, Chile (37 S)

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      INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000–0 cal BP

      The focus of this paper is the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages for the interval 24,000–0 cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), based upon a sample set of dendrochronologically dated tree rings, uranium-thorium dated corals, and varve-counted marine sediment. The14C age–cal age information, produced by many laboratories, is converted to Δ14C profiles and calibration curves, for the atmosphere as well as the oceans. We discuss offsets in measuredl4C ages and the errors therein, regional14C age differences, tree–coral14C age comparisons and the time dependence of marine reservoir ages, and evaluate decadalvs. single-year14C results. Changes in oceanic deepwater circulation, especially for the 16,000–11,000 cal BP interval, are reflected in the Δ14C values of INTCAL98.
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        The energy release in great earthquakes

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          Sea-level fluctuations during the last glacial cycle.

          The last glacial cycle was characterized by substantial millennial-scale climate fluctuations, but the extent of any associated changes in global sea level (or, equivalently, ice volume) remains elusive. Highstands of sea level can be reconstructed from dated fossil coral reef terraces, and these data are complemented by a compilation of global sea-level estimates based on deep-sea oxygen isotope ratios at millennial-scale resolution or higher. Records based on oxygen isotopes, however, contain uncertainties in the range of +/-30 m, or +/-1 degrees C in deep sea temperature. Here we analyse oxygen isotope records from Red Sea sediment cores to reconstruct the history of water residence times in the Red Sea. We then use a hydraulic model of the water exchange between the Red Sea and the world ocean to derive the sill depth-and hence global sea level-over the past 470,000 years (470 kyr). Our reconstruction is accurate to within +/-12 m, and gives a centennial-scale resolution from 70 to 25 kyr before present. We find that sea-level changes of up to 35 m, at rates of up to 2 cm yr(-1), occurred, coincident with abrupt changes in climate.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Geological Society of America Bulletin
            Geological Society of America Bulletin
            Geological Society of America
            0016-7606
            1943-2674
            December 13 2006
            December 13 2006
            : 118
            : 11-12
            : 1463-1480
            10.1130/B25865.1
            © 2006

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