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      Cyclical Expression of GnRH and GnRH Receptor mRNA in Lymphoid Organs

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          Abstract

          Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is known to possess dirct immunomodulatory effects. We have previously demonstrated that the administration of GnRH analogues modulates the expression of murine lupus independently of effects on gonadal steroids. We speculate that GnRH exerts direct actions at the level of the immune cells. GnRH receptors have been identified on lymphocytes. Because GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) expression varies with the estrous cycle at the levels of the hypothalamus and pituitary, we speculated that similar cyclicity might be demonstrable in lymphoid tissue. In this report, we used competitive reverse transcription PCR to quantitate the expression of GnRH and GnRH-R mRNA in lymphoid organs throughout the estrous cycle in mice. We demonstrate that the pattern of expression of GnRH-R mRNA in spleen agrees closely with the pattern in the pituitaries of the same mice and the pattern previously reported in the rat pituitary, with significantly increased levels of expression seen on the afternoon of proestrus compared to the morning of metestrus. A similar pattern is seen with GnRH-R mRNA expression in the thymus. Furthermore, we show that the expression of GnRH mRNA in both thymus and spleen agrees closely with the pattern of expression of its receptor, with significantly increased levels of expression seen on the afternoon of proestrus compared to the morning of metestrus. Additional in vitro studies demonstrate that both GnRH and estradiol significantly increase the expression of GnRH-R mRNA in immune cells. These findings support an active role for GnRH in the immune system.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Differential regulation of transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 2 genes in human T cells: demonstration by usage of novel competitor DNA constructs in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction

          The regulation of mRNA encoding transforming growth factor beta (TGF- beta) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in normal human T cells was explored using novel competitor DNA constructs in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and accessory cell-independent T cell activation models. Our experimental design revealed the following: (a) TGF-beta mRNA and IL-2 mRNA are regulated differentially in normal human T cells, quiescent or signaled with the synergistic combinations of: sn-1,2- dioctanoylglycerol and ionomycin or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and anti-CD2 mAb; (b) the steady-state level of TGF-beta mRNA in the stimulated T cells, in contrast to that of IL-2 mRNA, is increased by the immunosuppressant cyclosporine (CsA); and (c) the paradoxical effect of CsA on TGF-beta mRNA levels is also appreciable at the level of production of functionally active TGF-beta protein. Our findings, in addition to demonstrating the utility of the competitor DNA constructs for the precise quantification of immunoregulatory cytokines, suggest a novel and unifying mechanistic basis for the immunosuppression and some of the complications (e.g., renal fibrosis) associated with CsA usage.
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            Thymocyte maturity in male and female hypogonadal mice and the effect of preoptic area brain grafts

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEN
              Neuroendocrinology
              10.1159/issn.0028-3835
              Neuroendocrinology
              S. Karger AG
              0028-3835
              1423-0194
              1998
              January 1998
              30 January 1998
              : 67
              : 1
              : 117-125
              Affiliations
              a Section of Endocrinology, Children’s Mercy Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, Mo., b Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and c Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA
              Article
              54306 Neuroendocrinology 1998;67:117–125
              10.1159/000054306
              9508042
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 8, References: 25, Pages: 9
              Categories
              Neuroimmune Interactions

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