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      Prospective Comparison of 18F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in the Initial Workup of Multiple Myeloma: Study Protocol of a Prospective Imaging Trial


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          The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the use of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for treatment response evaluation, as it is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, at initial staging, the sensitivity of FDG-PET remains inferior to that of MRI. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging technique that could have a sensitivity equal to that of MRI at diagnosis and could serve to evaluate therapy. 18F-choline has shown increased sensitivity when compared with 18-FDG, with about 75% more lesions detected in patients with relapsed or progressive multiple myeloma (MM).


          Our primary objective is to prospectively compare the detection rate of bone lesions by 18F-choline PET/CT (FCH-PET) and FDG-PET in newly diagnosed MM. Our secondary objectives are to assess the accuracy of both PET modalities for the detection of bone lesions and the diagnosis of diffuse disease, to assess the detection rate of extramedullary lesions.


          We will prospectively include 30 patients in a paired comparative accuracy study. Patients with de novo MM will undergo FCH-PET, FDG-PET, and whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) within a 3-week period. WB-MRI will be composed of conventional sequences on the spine and pelvis and of whole-body diffusion axial sequences. The following 6 skeletal areas will be defined: skull, sternum/costal grid, spine, pelvis, superior limbs, and inferior limbs. The number of focal lesions, their respective localization, and intensity of uptake will be retrieved for each skeletal area. Readings will be performed blinded from other imaging techniques. The reference standard will be WB-MRI. Focal lesions present on PET/CT but not on WB-MRI will require a decision made with a consensus of experts based on clinical and imaging data. The number of bone lesions and number of extramedullary lesions will be compared using the Wilcoxon test. The accuracy of FCH-PET and FDG-PET will be compared using the McNemar test.


          The study started in September 2019, and enrollment is ongoing. As of June 2020, 8 participants have been included. Data collection is expected to be completed in June 2021, and the results are expected to be available in December 2021.


          This study will assess if FCH-PET is superior to FDG-PET for the evaluation of MM tumor burden. This will pave the way for future prospective evaluations of the prognostic value of 18-FCH for treatment response evaluation in MM patients. Additionally, this work may provide new perspectives for better assessment of the risk of smoldering MM progressing to MM.

          Trial Registration

          ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03891914; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03891914

          International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID)


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          Most cited references11

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          Trends in overall survival and costs of multiple myeloma, 2000–2014

          Little real-world evidence is available to describe the recent trends in treatment costs and outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Using the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases linked with social security administration death records, this study found that the percentage of MM patients using novel therapy continuously increased from 8.7% in 2000 to 61.3% in 2014. Compared with MM patients diagnosed in earlier years, those diagnosed after 2010 had higher rates of novel therapy use and better survival outcomes; patients diagnosed in 2012 were 1.25 times more likely to survive 2 years than those diagnosed in 2006. MM patients showed improved survival over the study period, with the 2-year survival gap between MM patients and matched controls decreasing at a rate of 3% per year. Total costs among MM patients have increased in all healthcare services over the years; however, the relative contribution of drug costs has remained fairly stable since 2009 despite new novel therapies coming to market. Findings from this study corroborate clinical data, suggesting a paradigm shift in MM treatment over the past decade that is associated with substantial survival gains. Future studies should focus on the impact on specific novel agents on patients’ outcomes.
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            Low expression of hexokinase-2 is associated with false-negative FDG–positron emission tomography in multiple myeloma

            Publisher's Note: There is an [Related article:] Inside Blood Commentary on this article in this issue. PET false-negativity was seen in 11% of MM patients. PET false-negativity was associated with low hexokinase-2 expression. 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)–positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with background signal suppression (DWIBS) are 2 powerful functional imaging modalities in the evaluation of malignant plasma cell (PC) disease multiple myeloma (MM). Preliminary observations have suggested that MM patients with extensive disease according to DWIBS may be reported as being disease-free on FDG-PET (“PET false-negative”). The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of PET false-negativity in a representative set of 227 newly diagnosed MM patients with simultaneous assessment of FDG-PET and DWIBS, and to identify tumor-intrinsic features associated with this pattern. We found the incidence of PET false-negativity to be 11%. Neither tumor load–associated parameters, such as degree of bone marrow PC infiltration, nor the PC proliferation rate were associated with this subset. However, the gene coding for hexokinase-2, which catalyzes the first step of glycolysis, was significantly lower expressed in PET false-negative cases (5.3-fold change, P < .001) which provides a mechanistic explanation for this feature. In conclusion, we demonstrate a relevant number of patients with FDG-PET false-negative MM and a strong association between hexokinase-2 expression and this negativity: a finding which may also be relevant for clinical imaging of other hematological cancers.
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              Prognostic implications of serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography in multiple myeloma treated with total therapy 3.

              Prognostic implications of 3 imaging tools, metastatic bone survey, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET), were evaluated in 2 consecutive Total Therapy 3 trials for newly diagnosed myeloma. Data including PET at baseline and on day 7 of induction as well as standard prognostic factors were available in 302 patients of whom 277 also had gene expression profiling (GEP)-derived risk information. According to multivariate analysis, more than 3 focal lesions on day 7 imparted inferior overall survival and progression-free survival, overall and in the subset with GEP-risk data. GEP high-risk designation retained independent significance for all 3 end points examined. Thus, the presence of > 3 focal lesions on day 7 PET follow-up may be exploited toward early therapy change, especially for the 15% of patients with GEP-defined high-risk disease with a median overall survival expectation of 2 years. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00081939 and # NCT00572169.

                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                September 2020
                10 September 2020
                : 9
                : 9
                : e17850
                [1 ] Nuclear Medicine Department Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux Pessac France
                [2 ] INSERM U1035 Université de Bordeaux Bordeaux France
                [3 ] Hematology Department Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux Pessac France
                [4 ] Radiology Department Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux Pessac France
                [5 ] Clinical Epidemiology Department Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux Pessac France
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Charles Mesguich charles.mesguich@ 123456chu-bordeaux.fr
                Author information
                ©Charles Mesguich, Cyrille Hulin, Valerie Latrabe, Julien Asselineau, Laurence Bordenave, Paul Perez, Elif Hindie, Gerald Marit. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 10.09.2020.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.researchprotocols.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 16 January 2020
                : 12 June 2020
                : 17 June 2020
                : 23 June 2020

                multiple myeloma,pet/ct,mri,18-fdg,18f-choline,cancer,medical imaging,skeletal system


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