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      A Systematic Approach to Interpreting the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in Pediatrics

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          Most cited references 29

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          Ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy subjects.

          When evaluating dyspnea in patients with heart or lung disease it is useful to measure the quantity of ventilation needed to eliminate metabolically produced CO2 (i.e., the ventilatory efficiency). Mathematically, the relationship between ventilation (VE) and CO2 output is determined by the arterial CO2 pressure and the physiologic dead space-tidal volume ratio. We decided to determine how age, sex, size, fitness, and the type of ergometer influenced ventilatory efficiency in normal subjects. Three methods were compared for expressing this relationship: (1) the VE versus CO2 output slope below the ventilatory compensation point, commonly used by cardiologists for estimating the severity of heart failure; (2) the VE/CO2 output ratio at the anaerobic threshold, commonly used by pulmonologists; and (3) the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio during exercise, the latter parameter not previously reported. We studied 474 healthy adults, between 17 and 78 years of age during incremental cycle and treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise tests at three test sites, correcting the total VE for the equipment dead space. The lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was insignificantly different from the ratio at the anaerobic threshold, less variable than that for the slope relationship, and unaffected by the site, ergometer, and gas exchange measurement systems. The regression equation for the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was 27.94 + 0.108 x age + (0.97 = F, 0.0 = M) - 0.0376 x height, where age is in years and height is in centimeters. We conclude that the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio is the preferred noninvasive method to estimate ventilatory inefficiency.
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            Establishing maximal oxygen uptake in young people during a ramp cycle test to exhaustion.

            This study tested the hypotheses that (1) secondary criteria (respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, blood [lactate]) traditionally used to verify the determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)) in children can result in the acceptance of a 'submaximal' VO₂(max) or falsely reject a 'true' VO(₂max) and (2) the VO₂(peak) recorded during a ramp test in children is comparable to the VO₂(peak) achieved during supramaximal testing. Thirteen children (9-10 years) completed a ramp cycle test to exhaustion to determine their VO₂(peak). After 15 min of recovery, the participants performed a supramaximal cycle test to exhaustion at 105% of their ramp test peak power. Compared with the VO₂(peak) during the ramp test, a significantly lower VO₂ was recorded at a RER of 1.00 (1.293 litre/min (SD 0.265) vs 1.681 litre/min (SD 0.295), p < 0.001, n = 12), at a heart rate of 195 beats/min (1.556 litre/min (SD 0.265) vs 1.721 litre/min (SD 0.318), p < 0.001, n = 10) and at 85% of age-predicted maximum (1.345 litre/min (SD 0.228) vs 1.690 litre/min (SD 0.284), p < 0.001, n = 13). Supramaximal testing yielded a VO₂(peak) that was not significantly different from the ramp test (1.615 litre/min (SD 0.307) vs 1.690 litre/min (SD 0.284), p = 0.090, respectively). The use of secondary criteria to verify a maximal effort in young people during ramp cycling exercise may result in the acceptance of a submaximal VO₂(max). As supramaximal testing elicits a VO₂(peak) similar to the ramp protocol, thus satisfying the plateau criterion, the use of such tests is recommended as the appropriate method of confirming a 'true' VO₂(max) with children.
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              Perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET): consensus clinical guidelines on indications, organization, conduct, and physiological interpretation

              The use of perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate the risk of adverse perioperative events and inform the perioperative management of patients undergoing surgery has increased over the last decade. CPET provides an objective assessment of exercise capacity preoperatively and identifies the causes of exercise limitation. This information may be used to assist clinicians and patients in decisions about the most appropriate surgical and non-surgical management during the perioperative period. Information gained from CPET can be used to estimate the likelihood of perioperative morbidity and mortality, to inform the processes of multidisciplinary collaborative decision making and consent, to triage patients for perioperative care (ward vs critical care), to direct preoperative interventions and optimization, to identify new comorbidities, to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant cancer therapies, to guide prehabilitation and rehabilitation, and to guide intraoperative anaesthetic practice. With the rapid uptake of CPET, standardization is key to ensure valid, reproducible results that can inform clinical decision making. Recently, an international Perioperative Exercise Testing and Training Society has been established (POETTS www.poetts.co.uk) promoting the highest standards of care for patients undergoing exercise testing, training, or both in the perioperative setting. These clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing guidelines have been developed by consensus by the Perioperative Exercise Testing and Training Society after systematic literature review. The guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Respiratory Technology and Physiology (ARTP).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pediatric Exercise Science
                Pediatric Exercise Science
                Human Kinetics
                0899-8493
                1543-2920
                May 2019
                May 2019
                : 31
                : 2
                : 194-203
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University Medical Center Utrecht
                [2 ]Maastricht University
                Article
                10.1123/pes.2018-0235
                © 2019

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