+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Prospective Analysis Utilizing Intraoperative Neuromonitoring for the Evaluation of Inter-Burst Frequencies

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) for spinal cord stimulation (SCS) uses electromyography (EMG) responses to determine myotomal coverage as a marker for dermatomal coverage.


          These responses can be utilized to evaluate the effects of stimulation platforms on the nervous system.


          Eight patients were tested at inter-burst frequencies of 10 Hz, 20 Hz, 30 Hz, and 40 Hz using DeRidder Burst stimulation to determine the amplitude of onset of post-synaptic signal generation. Three patients had additional data recording amplitude of onset of tonic stimulation prior to and post DeRidder Burst stimulation at each inter-burst frequency. This represented post-synaptic excitability.


          In all patients, the DeRidder Burst waveform generated EMG responses under all inter-burst frequencies including temporal summation, deeper fiber recruitment, and compounded action potentials. There was a non-significant decrease of 7.6–7.8% in amplitudes to generate response under 40 Hz, compared to the other frequencies. However, there was a 73.1% reduction in energy requirements at 10 Hz. The enhanced post-synaptic excitability effect was demonstrated at all frequencies.


          DeRidder Burst has similar effects of temporal summation, deeper fiber recruitment, and compounded action potentials under IONM at 40 Hz, 30 Hz, 20 Hz, and 10 Hz. In addition, the hyperexcitability phenomenon was also observed regardless of the frequency. This demonstrates that postsynaptic responses captured via IONM may be a sensitive biomarker to SCS mechanism of action. In addition, lower inter-burst frequencies may have a similar clinical effect on pain relief thus reducing power consumption even further than current dosing paradigms.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Novel 10-kHz High-frequency Therapy (HF10 Therapy) Is Superior to Traditional Low-frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Back and Leg Pain: The SENZA-RCT Randomized Controlled Trial.

          Current treatments for chronic pain have limited effectiveness and commonly known side effects. Given the prevalence and burden of intractable pain, additional therapeutic approaches are desired. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) delivered at 10 kHz (as in HF10 therapy) may provide pain relief without the paresthesias typical of traditional low-frequency SCS. The objective of this randomized, parallel-arm, noninferiority study was to compare long-term safety and efficacy of SCS therapies in patients with back and leg pain.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Success Using Neuromodulation With BURST (SUNBURST) Study: Results From a Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial Using a Novel Burst Waveform

            The purpose of the multicenter, randomized, unblinded, crossover Success Using Neuromodulation with BURST (SUNBURST) study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a device delivering both traditional tonic stimulation and burst stimulation to patients with chronic pain of the trunk and/or limbs.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The Efficacy of High-Density Spinal Cord Stimulation Among Trial, Implant, and Conversion Patients: A Retrospective Case Series.

              Methods of energy delivery for traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems consist of adjusting programming parameters to affect the total charge delivered per unit time. One high electrical charge delivery method being considered is subthreshold high density (HD) programming. To date, there is limited clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of paresthesia-free HD programming. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of HD programming.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                11 March 2021
                : 14
                : 703-710
                [1 ]Neurosurgical Associates of Lancaster , Lancaster, PA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Steven M Falowski Director Functional Neurosurgery, Neurosurgical Associates of Lancaster , 160 N Pointe Blvd Suite 200, Lancaster, PA, 17601Tel +44-358-0800 Email sfalowski@gmail.com
                © 2021 Falowski and Benison.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 20, Pages: 8
                Original Research


                Comment on this article