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      Exploration of the Influential Factors on Adherence to Occupational Therapy in Parents of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Qualitative Study

      1 , 2

      Patient preference and adherence


      cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, adherence, qualitative study, Iran

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          Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of permanent disability in children. Occupational therapists serve a primary role in the rehabilitation of children with CP. Poor adherence to treatment is common. The aim of this study is to explore the viewpoint of occupational therapists on factors which impact adherence to occupational therapy (OT) interventions among parents of children with CP.

          Material and Methods

          A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews were employed. Our participants were recruited by purposive sampling among occupational therapists who were working in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis using constant comparison was performed.


          The mean age of our participants was 34.23±7.50. Four main categories with specific subcategories emerged as important in affecting adherence. The first category of child and family-related factors described factors such as the clinical status of the child and family composition. These factors had the potential for both improving and reducing adherence to treatment. The second category of therapist-related factors described the effect of appropriate professional skills of the therapist on improving adherence and included clinical competency, communication skills, and job satisfaction. The third category of environmental factors addressed factors such as cultural views of child disability and access to OT interventions. The category mostly emphasized environmental barriers to adherence to treatment. The fourth category of therapy-related factors described barriers such as the type of therapy, and the length of treatment.


          Adherence to OT interventions in parents of children with CP can be influenced by several factors. These factors range from child and family-related factors to therapy-related factors and have the potential for both positively and negatively affecting adherence. Programs to improve adherence should address these factors together.

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          Most cited references 30

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          A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006.

          For a variety of reasons, the definition and the classification of cerebral palsy (CP) need to be reconsidered. Modern brain imaging techniques have shed new light on the nature of the underlying brain injury and studies on the neurobiology of and pathology associated with brain development have further explored etiologic mechanisms. It is now recognized that assessing the extent of activity restriction is part of CP evaluation and that people without activity restriction should not be included in the CP rubric. Also, previous definitions have not given sufficient prominence to the non-motor neurodevelopmental disabilities of performance and behaviour that commonly accompany CP, nor to the progression of musculoskeletal difficulties that often occurs with advancing age. In order to explore this information, pertinent material was reviewed on July 11-13, 2004 at an international workshop in Bethesda, MD (USA) organized by an Executive Committee and participated in by selected leaders in the preclinical and clinical sciences. At the workshop, it was agreed that the concept 'cerebral palsy' should be retained. Suggestions were made about the content of a revised definition and classification of CP that would meet the needs of clinicians, investigators, health officials, families and the public and would provide a common language for improved communication. Panels organized by the Executive Committee used this information and additional comments from the international community to generate a report on the Definition and Classification of Cerebral Palsy, April 2006. The Executive Committee presents this report with the intent of providing a common conceptualization of CP for use by a broad international audience.
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            The epidemiology of cerebral palsy: incidence, impairments and risk factors.

            Describing the epidemiology of cerebral palsy (CP), its impairments and risk factors. Literature review 1965-2004. Search terms: Cerebral palsy, incidence, prevalence, impairments, risk factors. In the last 40 years the prevalence of CP has risen to well above 2.0 per 1000 life births. In this time span the proportion of low-birthweight infants rose, the proportion of diplegia decreased, while the proportion of hemiplegia increased. CP is more prevalent in more deprived socio-economic populations. The majority of people with CP have the spastic syndrome of which the diplegic group is the smallest. Dependent on the subgroup of CP, 25-80% have additional impairments. A large proportion has some kind of cognitive impairment; the prevalence varies with the type of CP and especially increases when epilepsy is present. Epilepsy is present in 20-40%; it is most common among the hemi- and tetraplegics. Sensibility of the hands is impaired in about half. Chronic pain is reported by more than a quarter of the adults. Up to 80% have at least some impairment of speech. Low visual acuity is reported in almost three-quarters of all children. Half of all children have gastrointestinal and feeding problems. Stunted growth occurs in a quarter, while under- or overweight problems are present in half of the children. Almost 70% of people with spastic CP have abnormal brain CT findings; abnormal cranial ultrasounds is most strongly associated with hemiplegia, normal cranial ultrasounds with diplegia. The most important risk factors for CP are low birthweight, intrauterine infections and multiple gestation.
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              Defining and assessing professional competence


                Author and article information

                Patient Prefer Adherence
                Patient Prefer Adherence
                Patient preference and adherence
                13 January 2020
                : 14
                : 63-72
                [1 ]Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah, Iran
                [2 ]Division of Emergency Medicine, Children’s National Health System , Washington DC, PA 20010, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Leeba Rezaie Sleep Disorders Research Center, Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Dovlat Abad Blvd, Kermanshah, IranTel +9891883364414Fax +988338264255 Email rezaie.phd.ot@gmail.com
                © 2020 Rezaie and Kendi.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 10
                Original Research


                cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, adherence, qualitative study, iran


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