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      Metazoan parasite communities of two deep-sea elasmobranchs: the southern lanternshark, Etmopterus granulosus, and the largenose catshark, Apristurus nasutus, in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean Translated title: Communautés des parasites métazoaires de deux élasmobranches de mer profonde, Etmopterus granulosus et Apristurus nasutus, dans le sud-est de l’océan Pacifique

      1 , 2 , 3 , 3 , 4 , *


      EDP Sciences

      Deep-sea sharks, metazoan parasites, biodiversity, Southeastern Pacific Ocean

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          Two deep-sea shark species were obtained as by-catch of the local fishery of the Patagonian toothfish, Dissostichus eleginoides, at depths ranging from 1000 to 2200 m off central and northern Chile. A total of 19 parasite taxa were found in 133 specimens of the southern lanternshark, Etmopterus granulosus, ( n = 120) and largenose catshark, Apristurus nasutus, ( n = 13). Fourteen taxa (four Monogenea, one Digenea, four Cestoda, one Nematoda, two Copepoda, one Annelida and one Thecostraca) were found in E. granulosus, whereas five taxa (one Monogenea, two Cestoda and two Nematoda) were found in A. nasutus. Representatives of Cestoda showed higher values of prevalence and a greater intensity of infection; this pattern is consistent with reports for elasmobranchs, but the monogenean richness was higher than that previously reported for related deep-sea sharks. Regarding E. granulosus, a positive and significant correlation between host length and abundance was found for six (four ectoparasites, one mesoparasite, and one endoparasite) of the 14 taxa recorded, but prevalence was significantly correlated with host length only for the monogenean Asthenocotyle sp. Although the sample size for A. nasutus was limited, we compared richness, abundance, diversity and evenness at the infracommunity and component community levels. All of these variables were higher for E. granulosus, but at the infracommunity level, abundance was higher for A. nasutus. All the parasite taxa (except two) represent new host and geographical records.

          Translated abstract

          Deux espèces de requins des grands fonds ont été obtenues comme prises accessoires de la pêcherie locale de Légine australe, Dissostichus eleginoides, à des profondeurs allant de 1000 à 2200 m, au large du centre et du nord du Chili. Au total, 19 taxons de parasites ont été trouvés dans 133 spécimens du Sagre long nez Etmopterus granulosus ( n = 120) et du Holbiche cyrano Apristurus nasutus ( n = 13). Quatorze taxons (quatre Monogenea, un Digenea, quatre Cestoda, un Nematoda, deux Copepoda, un Annelida et un Thecostraca) ont été trouvés chez E. granulosus, tandis que cinq taxons (un Monogenea, deux Cestoda et deux Nematoda) ont été trouvés chez A. nasutus. Les représentants des Cestoda ont montré des valeurs de prévalence plus élevées et une plus grande intensité d’infection; ce schéma concorde bien avec ce qui a été rapporté pour les élasmobranches, mais la richesse des Monogenea était supérieure à celle précédemment rapportée pour les requins de profondeur apparentés. En ce qui concerne E. granulosus, une corrélation positive et significative entre la longueur de l’hôte et l’abondance a été constatée pour six des 14 taxons répertoriés (quatre ectoparasites, un mésoparasite et un endoparasite), mais la prévalence était significativement corrélée à la longueur de l’hôte uniquement pour le Monogène Asthenocotyle sp. Bien que la taille de l’échantillon d’ A. nasutus soit limitée, nous avons comparé la richesse, l’abondance, la diversité et la régularité aux niveaux infracommunautaire et communautaire. Toutes ces variables étaient plus élevées pour E. granulosus, mais au niveau infracommunautaire, l’abondance était supérieure pour A. nasutus. Tous les taxons parasites, à l’exception de deux, représentent de nouvelles mentions géographiques et de nouveaux hôtes.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

          Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.
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              Parasites of the superorganism: are they indicators of ecosystem health?

              The concept of ecosystem health is derived from analogies with human health, which subsequently leads to the implication that the ecosystem has organismal properties, a 'superorganism' in the Clementsian sense. Its application and usefulness has been the subject of a contentious debate; yet, the term 'ecosystem health' has captured the public's imagination and woven its way into the current lexicon, even incorporated into public policy. However, the application of parasites as bioindicators of ecosystem health poses a curious conundrum. Perceptions of parasites range from mild distaste to sheer disgust among the general public, the media, environmental managers and non-parasitologists in the scientific community. Nevertheless, the biological nature of parasitism incorporates natural characteristics that are informative and useful for environmental management. The helminths in particular have evolved elegant means to ensure their transmission, often relying on complex life cycle interactions that include a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The assemblage of these diverse parasites within a host organism potentially reflect that host's trophic position within the food web as well as the presence in the ecosystem of any other organisms that participate in the various parasite life cycles. Perturbations in ecosystem structure and function that affect food web topology will also impact upon parasite transmission, thus affecting parasite species abundance and composition. As such, parasite populations and communities are useful indicators of environmental stress, food web structure and biodiversity. In addition, there may be useful other means to utilise parasitic organisms based on their biology and life histories such as suites or guilds that may be effective bioindicators of particular forms of environmental degradation. The challenge for parasitology is to convince resource managers and fellow scientists that parasites are a natural part of all ecosystems, each species being a potentially useful information unit, and that healthy ecosystems have healthy parasites.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                20 November 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                [1 ] Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Aplicadas, mención Sistemas Marinos Costeros, Universidad de Antofagasta P.O. Box 179 Antofagasta Chile
                [2 ] Departamento Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción P.O. Box 160-C Concepción Chile
                [3 ] Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO), Universidad de Concepción P.O. Box 160-C Concepción Chile
                [4 ] Instituto de Ciencias Naturales Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad de Antofagasta P.O. Box 170 Antofagasta Chile
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: marcelo.oliva@ 123456uantof.cl
                parasite180050 10.1051/parasite/2018054
                © J.F. Espínola-Novelo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 9
                Research Article


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