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      Diabetes mellitus Worsens Intrarenal Hemodynamic Abnormalities in Nondialyzed Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Duplex Doppler sonography has been reported to be useful in examining the intrarenal hemodynamic abnormalities in various renal diseases. We investigated the impact of diabetes on intrarenal hemodynamics in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). The resistive index and pulsatility index of the renal interlobar arteries were measured using duplex Doppler sonography in 90 CRF patients (serum creatinine >130 and <800 mmol/l, mean age 59 ± 11 years). Forty-eight patients had type 2 diabetes and 42 did not. Twenty-nine age-matched, healthy subjects served as controls. Both resistive index and pulsatility index were greater in CRF patients than in the controls (p < 0.0001). No significant differences existed in age, sex, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, or mean blood pressure between the diabetic CRF and nondiabetic CRF groups. Resistive index and pulsatility index were significantly increased in the diabetic CRF patients compared to the nondiabetic CRF patients (p < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis of all CRF patients revealed that resistive index was independently affected by the presence of type 2 diabetes (F = 44.535), as well as decreased creatinine clearance (F = 18.157) and age (F = 15.160) (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.559, p < 0.0001). These results clearly demonstrated that intrarenal arterial resistance is significantly increased in CRF patients with type 2 diabetes compared to similar patients without diabetes. The impact of diabetes mellitus and advanced age on intrarenal hemodynamics may be due to intrarenal arteriosclerosis and interstitital lesions. Measurements of RI values in addition to conventional ultrasound imaging may add further information on such renal lesions.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure.

          In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism are known to be present, and several factors could contribute to the abnormalities. We measured serum levels of three vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)2D, 24, 25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D, and analyzed factors affecting their levels in 76 nondialyzed patients with CRF (serum creatinine> 1.6 and < 9.0 mg/dl), 37 of whom had diabetes mellitus (DM-CRF) and 39 of whom were nondiabetic (nonDM-CRF). Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated with estimated creatinine clearance (CCr; r = 0.429; P < 0.0001), and levels of 24,25(OH)2D were weakly correlated with CCr (r = 0.252, P < 0.05); no correlation was noted for 25(OH)D. Serum levels of all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly and positively correlated with serum albumin. Although there were no significant differences in age, sex, estimated CCr, calcium and phosphate between DM-CRF and nonDM-CRF, all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly lower in DM-CRF than in nonDM-CRF. To analyze factors influencing vitamin D metabolite levels, we performed multiple regression analyses. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and independently associated with serum albumin, presence of DM and serum phosphate (R2 = 0.599; P < 0.0001). 24,25(OH)2D levels were significantly and strongly associated with 25(OH)D (beta = 0.772; R2 = 0.446; P < 0.0001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were significantly associated only with estimated CCr (R2 = 0. 409; P < 0.0001). These results suggest that hypoalbuminemia and the presence of DM independently affect serum 25(OH)D levels, probably via diabetic nephropathy and poor nutritional status associated with diabetes, and that 25(OH)D is actively catalyzed to 24,25(OH)2D in CRF, probably largely via extrarenal 24-hydroxylase. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly affected by the degree of renal failure. Thus, this study indicates that patients with CRF, particularly those with DM, should receive supplements containing the active form of vitamin D prior to dialysis.
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            Renal disease and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

            Recent epidemiologic data demonstrate a dramatic increase in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), thus dispelling the mistaken belief that renal prognosis is benign in NIDDM. Currently, the leading cause of ESRD in the United States, Japan, and in most industrialized Europe is NIDDM, accounting for nearly 90% of all cases of diabetes. In addition to profound economic costs, patients with NIDDM and diabetic nephropathy have a dramatically increased morbidity and premature mortality. NIDDM-related nephropathy varies widely among racial and ethnic groups, genders and lifestyles; and gender may interact with race to affect the disease progression. While the course of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) progresses through well-defined stages, the natural history of NIDDM is less well characterized. NIDDM patients with coronary heart disease have a higher urinary albumin excretion rate at the time of diagnosis and follow-up. This greater risk may also be associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and genes involved in blood pressure are obvious candidate genes for diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia appears to be an important factor in the development of proteinuria in NIDDM, but its role and the influence of diet are not yet clear. Tobacco smoking can also be deleterious to the diabetic patient, and is also associated with disease progression. Maintaining euglycemia, stopping smoking and controlling blood pressure may prevent or slow the progression of NIDDM-related nephropathy and reduce extrarenal injury. Treatment recommendations include early screening for hyperlipidemia, appropriate exercise and a healthy diet. Cornerstones of management should also include: (1) educating the medical community and more widely disseminating data supporting the value of early treatment of microalbuminuria; (2) developing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary team approach that involves physicians, nurses, diabetes educators and behavioral therapists; and (3) intensifying research in this field.
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              Renal blood flow detection with Doppler ultrasonography in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

              Hepatorenal syndrome, a well-recognized complication of established liver disease, is characterized by early renal vasoconstriction before clinically recognized renal disease. Renal vasoconstriction causes increased renal vascular resistance, which can be detected noninvasively by Doppler ultrasonography. To detect early renal hemodynamic changes in patients with hepatic cirrhosis who had clinically normal renal functions. Twenty patients with hepatic cirrhosis and ascites, 11 patients with hepatic cirrhosis without ascites, and 23 healthy control subjects. All cirrhotic patients had normal serum urea nitrogen and creatinine values. Peak systolic, peak diastolic, and mean flow velocities; pulsatile index; resistive index; and peak systolic velocity/peak diastolic velocity ratio as measured by renal Doppler ultrasonography. Peak diastolic flow velocity was significantly lower in cirrhotic patients with ascites than in cirrhotic patients without ascites and control subjects (P < .02 and P < .004, respectively), but the peak systolic flow velocity/peak diastolic flow velocity ratio (P < .007 and P < .001, respectively), pulsatile index (P < .007 and P < .001, respectively), and resistive index (P < .007 and P < .001, respectively) were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients with ascites than in cirrhotic patients without ascites and controls. Renal Doppler ultrasonography can noninvasively identify a subgroup of nonazotemic patients with hepatic cirrhosis who are at high risk for subsequent development of renal dysfunction and hepatorenal syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2000
                September 2000
                30 August 2000
                : 86
                : 1
                : 44-51
                Affiliations
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan
                Article
                45711 Nephron 2000;86:44–51
                10.1159/000045711
                10971152
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 43, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45711
                Categories
                Original Paper

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