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      P2 Receptors in Cardiac Myocyte Pathophysiology and Mechanotransduction


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          ATP is a major energy source in the mammalian cells, but it is an extracellular chemical messenger acting on P2 purinergic receptors. A line of evidence has shown that ATP is released from many different types of cells including neurons, endothelial cells, and muscle cells. In this review, we described the distribution of P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiac cells and their physiological and pathological roles in the heart. So far, the effects of external application of ATP or its analogues, and those of UTP on cardiac contractility and rhythm have been reported. In addition, specific genetic alterations and pharmacological agonists and antagonists have been adopted to discover specific roles of P2 receptor subtypes including P2X4-, P2X7-, P2Y2- and P2Y6-receptors in cardiac cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Accumulated data suggest that P2X4 receptors may play a beneficial role in cardiac muscle function, and that P2Y2- and P2Y6-receptors can induce cardiac fibrosis. Recent evidence further demonstrates P2Y1 receptor and P2X4 receptor as important mechanical signaling molecules to alter membrane potential and Ca 2+ signaling in atrial myocytes and their uneven expression profile between right and left atrium.

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          2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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            HL-1 cells: a cardiac muscle cell line that contracts and retains phenotypic characteristics of the adult cardiomyocyte.

            We have derived a cardiac muscle cell line, designated HL-1, from the AT-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocyte tumor lineage. HL-1 cells can be serially passaged, yet they maintain the ability to contract and retain differentiated cardiac morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological properties. Ultrastructural characteristics typical of embryonic atrial cardiac muscle cells were found consistently in the cultured HL-1 cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR-based analyses confirmed a pattern of gene expression similar to that of adult atrial myocytes, including expression of alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain, alpha-cardiac actin, and connexin43. They also express the gene for atrial natriuretic factor. Immunohistochemical staining of the HL-1 cells indicated that the distribution of the cardiac-specific markers desmin, sarcomeric myosin, and atrial natriuretic factor was similar to that of cultured atrial cardiomyocytes. A delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) was the most prominent outward current in HL-1 cells. The activating currents displayed inward rectification and deactivating current tails were voltage-dependent, saturated at >+20 mV, and were highly sensitive to dofetilide (IC50 of 46.9 nM). Specific binding of [3H]dofetilide was saturable and fit a one-site binding isotherm with a Kd of 140 +/- 60 nM and a Bmax of 118 fmol per 10(5) cells. HL-1 cells represent a cardiac myocyte cell line that can be repeatedly passaged and yet maintain a cardiac-specific phenotype.
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              Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors.

              P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body β-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                29 December 2020
                January 2021
                : 22
                : 1
                : 251
                Laboratory of Pathophysiology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea; tranctu1994@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: shwoo@ 123456cnu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-(0)42-821-5924
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 04 December 2020
                : 22 December 2020

                Molecular biology
                cardiac myocyte function,p2x receptors,p2y receptors,extracellular atp,mechanical signaling,pathohysiological roles


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