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      Dosage Compensation in Drosophila—a Model for the Coordinate Regulation of Transcription

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          Abstract

          The sex chromosomes have special significance in the history of genetics. The chromosomal basis of inheritance was firmly established when Calvin Bridges demonstrated that exceptions to Mendel’s laws of segregation were accompanied at the cytological level by exceptional sex chromosome segregation. The morphological differences between X and Y exploited in Bridges’ experiments arose as a consequence of the evolution of the sex chromosomes. Originally a homologous chromosome pair, the degeneration of the Y chromosome has been accompanied by a requirement for increased expression of the single X chromosome in males. Drosophila has been a model for the study of this dosage compensation and has brought key strengths, including classical genetics, the exceptional cytology of polytene chromosomes, and more recently, comprehensive genomics. The impact of these studies goes beyond sex chromosome regulation, providing valuable insights into mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of chromatin domains, and for the coordinate regulation of transcription.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Genetics
          Genetics
          genetics
          genetics
          genetics
          Genetics
          Genetics Society of America
          0016-6731
          1943-2631
          October 2016
          7 October 2016
          : 204
          : 2
          : 435-450
          Affiliations
          [* ]Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
          []Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
          []Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany
          [§ ]Department of Biology, O. Wayne Rollins Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322
          Author notes
          [1 ]Corresponding author: New Research Bldg. 168, Harvard Medical School, Ave. Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: mkuroda@ 123456genetics.med.harvard.edu
          Article
          PMC5068838 PMC5068838 5068838 185108
          10.1534/genetics.115.185108
          5068838
          27729494
          Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America
          Page count
          Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 126, Pages: 16
          Categories
          FlyBook
          Gene Expression

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