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      QTL Mapping and Validation of Adult Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Chinese Wheat Landrace Humai 15


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          Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst) is a devastating foliar disease that affects common wheat and barley throughout the world. The reasonable deployment of adult plant resistance (APR) wheat varieties is one of the best methods for controlling this disease. Wheat landraces are valuable resources for identifying the genes/QTLs responsible for disease resistance. Humai 15 is a Chinese spring wheat landrace and it has exhibited adequate levels of APR to the prevalent Pst races in field environments for many years. In this study, a population of 177 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived from Humai 15 × Mingxian 169. After screening based on a 90K chip array using 45 RILs and Kompetitive Allelic Specific PCR marker genotyping for the population of RILs, a major effect QTL in Humai 15 was located on the centromere of chromosome 2B, where it accounted for up to 47.2% of the phenotypic variation. Two other minor QTL genes from Humai 15 were located on chromosome arms 3BS and 4BL. The Yr18 gene was identified on chromosome arm 7DS in Mingxian 169.

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          A putative ABC transporter confers durable resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in wheat.

          Agricultural crops benefit from resistance to pathogens that endures over years and generations of both pest and crop. Durable disease resistance, which may be partial or complete, can be controlled by several genes. Some of the most devastating fungal pathogens in wheat are leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. The wheat gene Lr34 has supported resistance to these pathogens for more than 50 years. Lr34 is now shared by wheat cultivars around the world. Here, we show that the LR34 protein resembles adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters of the pleiotropic drug resistance subfamily. Alleles of Lr34 conferring resistance or susceptibility differ by three genetic polymorphisms. The Lr34 gene, which functions in the adult plant, stimulates senescence-like processes in the flag leaf tips and edges.
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            Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis PAL gene family in plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress.

            Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step of the phenylpropanoid pathway, which produces precursors to a variety of important secondary metabolites. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains four PAL genes (PAL1-PAL4), but there has been no genetic analysis to assess the biological functions of the entire gene family. Here, we report the generation and analysis of combined mutations for the four Arabidopsis PAL genes. Contrary to a previous report, we found that three independent pal1 pal2 double mutants were fertile and generated yellow seeds due to the lack of condensed tannin pigments in the seed coat. The pal1 pal2 double mutants were also deficient in anthocyanin pigments in various plant tissues, which accumulate in wild-type plants under stress conditions. Thus, PAL1 and PAL2 have a redundant role in flavonoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, the pal1 pal2 double mutants were more sensitive to ultraviolet-B light but more tolerant to drought than wild-type plants. We have also generated two independent pal1 pal2 pal3 pal4 quadruple knockout mutants, which are stunted and sterile. The quadruple knockout mutants still contained about 10% of the wild-type PAL activity, which might result from one or more leaky pal mutant genes or from other unknown PAL genes. The quadruple mutants also accumulated substantially reduced levels of salicylic acid and displayed increased susceptibility to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results provide further evidence for both distinct and overlapping roles of the Arabidopsis PAL genes in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses.
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              Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformisf. sp.tritici] on wheat

              X.M. Chen (2005)

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 July 2018
                : 9
                [1] 1College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, China
                [2] 2Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering for Plant Breeding , Yangling, China
                [3] 3State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, China
                [4] 4College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, China
                [5] 5School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China , Chengdu, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Thomas Miedaner, University of Hohenheim, Germany

                Reviewed by: Nicole Sommerfeldt, Julius Kühn-Institut, Germany; Li Huang, Montana State University, United States

                *Correspondence: Zhen-Sheng Kang kangzs@ 123456nwsuaf.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Plant Breeding, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2018 Yuan, Zeng, Wu, Wang, Yang, Liang, Kang, Chen and Han.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 13, Words: 8514
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                adult plant resistance (apr),fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish),puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici,quantitative trait loci (qtl),triticum aestivum


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