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      Isoliquiritigen Enhances the Antitumour Activity and Decreases the Genotoxic Effect of Cyclophosphamide

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumour activities and genotoxic effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) combined with cyclophosphamide (CP) in vitro and in vivo. U14 cells were treated with either of ISL (5–25 μg/mL) or CP (0.25–1.25 mg/mL) alone or with combination of ISL (5–25 μg/mL) and CP (1.0 mg/mL) for 48 h. The proliferation inhibitory effect in vitro was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays. KM mice bearing U14 mouse cervical cancer cells were used to estimate the antitumour activity in vivo. The genotoxic activity in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes was assayed by frequency of micronuclei. The DNA damage in peripheral white blood cells was assayed by single cell gel electrophoresis. The results showed that ISL enhanced antitumour activity of CP in vitro and in vivo, and decreased the micronucleus formation in polychromatic erythrocytes and DNA strand breaks in white blood cells in a dose-dependent way.

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          A cross-platform public domain PC image-analysis program for the comet assay.

          The single-cell gel electrophoresis, also known as the comet assay, has gained wide-spread popularity as a simple and reliable method to measure genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of physical and chemical agents as well as kinetics of DNA repair. Cells are generally stained with fluorescent dyes. The analysis of comets--damaged cells which form a typical comet-shaped pattern--is greatly facilitated by the use of a computer image-analysis program. Although several image-analysis programs are available commercially, they are expensive and their source codes are not provided. For Macintosh computers a cost-free public domain macro is available on the Internet. No ready for use, cost-free program exists for the PC platform. We have, therefore, developed such a public domain program under the GNU license for PC computers. The program is called CASP and can be run on a variety of hardware and software platforms. Its practical merit was tested on human lymphocytes exposed to gamma-rays and found to yield reproducible results. The binaries for Windows 95 and Linux, together with the source code can be obtained from: http://www.casp.of.pl.
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            Curcumin induces chemo/radio-sensitization in ovarian cancer cells and curcumin nanoparticles inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth

            Background Chemo/radio-resistance is a major obstacle in treating advanced ovarian cancer. The efficacy of current treatments may be improved by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemo/radiation therapies. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound with anti-cancer activity in multiple cancers; however, its chemo/radio-sensitizing potential is not well studied in ovarian cancer. Herein, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a curcumin pre-treatment strategy for chemo/radio-sensitizing cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. To improve the efficacy and specificity of curcumin induced chemo/radio sensitization, we developed a curcumin nanoparticle formulation conjugated with a monoclonal antibody specific for cancer cells. Methods Cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian cancer cells were pre-treated with curcumin followed by exposure to cisplatin or radiation and the effect on cell growth was determined by MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the expression of apoptosis related proteins and β-catenin was determined by Western blotting or Flow Cytometry. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the effect of curcumin on β-catenin transcription activity. The poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (Nano-CUR) was developed by a modified nano-precipitation method and physico-chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. Results Curcumin pre-treatment considerably reduced the dose of cisplatin and radiation required to inhibit the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. During the 6 hr pre-treatment, curcumin down regulated the expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 pro-survival proteins. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by exposure to low doses of cisplatin increased apoptosis as indicated by annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Additionally, curcumin pre-treatment lowered β-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. Nano-CUR was successfully generated and physico-chemical characterization of Nano-CUR indicated an average particle size of ~70 nm, steady and prolonged release of curcumin, antibody conjugation capability and effective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth. Conclusion Curcumin pre-treatment enhances chemo/radio-sensitization in A2780CP ovarian cancer cells through multiple molecular mechanisms. Therefore, curcumin pre-treatment may effectively improve ovarian cancer therapeutics. A targeted PLGA nanoparticle formulation of curcumin is feasible and may improve the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of curcumin.
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              Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, reduces prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, causes apoptosis, and suppresses aberrant crypt foci development.

              Isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), a flavonoid group compound, exists in some foodstuffs and herbal medicines such as licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisher). Previously, we showed that ILTG can suppress azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in ddY mice. In the present report, we present evidence that ILTG markedly decreases both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. The decrease of PGE2 was dependent on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and the decrease of NO appeared due to a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. In mouse and human colon carcinoma cells, ILTG treatment suppressed cell growth and caused apoptosis. Furthermore, in vivo administration of ILTG inhibited the induction of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the male F344 rat colon. Our results suggest that ILTG is a promising chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                24 July 2013
                August 2013
                : 18
                : 8
                : 8786-8798
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002, China
                [2 ]Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
                [3 ]School of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Binzhou Medical College, Yantai 264000, China
                [4 ]Life Science School, Yantai University, Yantai 264000, China
                Author notes
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ] Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: sunxiling@ 123456sohu.com (X.S.); zqsyt@ 123456sohu.com (Q.Z).
                Article
                molecules-18-08786
                10.3390/molecules18088786
                6270523
                23887720
                fcc0d62f-48ac-44e8-9782-8c5dbebf9cfb
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                isoliquiritigenin,antitumour,cyclophosphamide,genotoxic effect

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