The amount of the transcriptome that is translated into polypeptides is of fundamental importance. We developed a peptidomic strategy to detect short ORF (sORF)-encoded polypeptides (SEPs) in human cells. We identified 90 SEPs, 86 of which are novel, the largest number of human SEPs ever reported. SEP abundances range from 10-1000 molecules per cell, identical to known proteins. SEPs arise from sORFs in non-coding RNAs as well as multi-cistronic mRNAs, and many SEPs initiate with non-AUG start codons, indicating that non-canonical translation may be more widespread in mammals than previously thought. In addition, coding sORFs are present in a small fraction (8/1866) of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs). Together, these results provide the strongest evidence to date that the human proteome is more complex than previously appreciated.