Purpose: To investigate and compare the efficiency of autografting of marginal conjunctiva (autograft of marginal conjunctiva technique, AMCT) and the bare sclera technique (BST) in pterygium excision. Materials and Methods: In this study, 51 eyes of 51 patients who underwent pterygium surgery using the AMCT (group 1) were compared to 45 eyes of 45 patients who underwent pterygium excision using the BST (group 2), with regard to epithelialisation, recurrence and complication of the procedures. Patients were followed up for 15.37 ± 12.01 months in group 1 and for 18.57 ± 10.42 months in group 2. Results: Postoperative epithelialisation was completed in 4.34 ± 1.27 days in group 1 and in 5.61 ± 1.71 days in group 2. Epithelialisation was completed earlier in group 1 than group 2 (p < 0.05). Recurrences were detected in 7 eyes (13.73%) of group 1 and in 17 eyes (37.78%) of group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.01). No postoperative complications were seen in either of the groups. Conclusions: The AMCT was found to be a more efficient procedure than the BST. Autografting of marginal conjunctiva may be a useful alternative treatment in pterygium surgery due to higher success and lower recurrence rates.