Objective: Childhood onset Graves’ disease (GD) has been documented to be clinically distinct from adult onset GD, and an association with the genes encoding HLA and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) has been reported in both Caucasian and Japanese adult GD patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether HLA-DR, -DQ and CTLA-4 are associated with childhood onset GD in Japanese individuals. Methods: We investigated the genotype of HLA class II (DRB1, DQB1) and the A/G transition polymorphism of CTLA-4 exon 1 position 49 in 43 GD patients and in healthy controls for comparison. The CTLA-4 alleles were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genomic DNA and restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) with Ita1. Results: The frequency of both HLA-DRB1*0405 and DQB1*0401 was increased in the patient group (DRB1*0405: 26.7%, p < 0.001; DQB1*0401: 25.6%, p < 0.005) compared with the controls. Patients with GD had a significantly lower frequency of the AA genotype of CTLA-4 than the controls, but there was no difference in allele frequency between the G and A allele. Conclusions: the association of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 genotype with susceptibility to childhood onset GD differs from that in adult onset GD, whereas the association between CTLA-4 gene polymorphism and childhood onset GD is similar to that in adult onset GD in Japanese individuals, but the association is weak.