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      Association of HLA-DR, -DQ Genotype and CTLA-4 Gene Polymorphism with Graves’ Disease in Japanese Children

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          Abstract

          Objective: Childhood onset Graves’ disease (GD) has been documented to be clinically distinct from adult onset GD, and an association with the genes encoding HLA and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) has been reported in both Caucasian and Japanese adult GD patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether HLA-DR, -DQ and CTLA-4 are associated with childhood onset GD in Japanese individuals. Methods: We investigated the genotype of HLA class II (DRB1, DQB1) and the A/G transition polymorphism of CTLA-4 exon 1 position 49 in 43 GD patients and in healthy controls for comparison. The CTLA-4 alleles were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genomic DNA and restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) with Ita1. Results: The frequency of both HLA-DRB1*0405 and DQB1*0401 was increased in the patient group (DRB1*0405: 26.7%, p < 0.001; DQB1*0401: 25.6%, p < 0.005) compared with the controls. Patients with GD had a significantly lower frequency of the AA genotype of CTLA-4 than the controls, but there was no difference in allele frequency between the G and A allele. Conclusions: the association of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 genotype with susceptibility to childhood onset GD differs from that in adult onset GD, whereas the association between CTLA-4 gene polymorphism and childhood onset GD is similar to that in adult onset GD in Japanese individuals, but the association is weak.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Regulatory T Cells

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            CTLA-4: a negative regulator of autoimmune disease

            CTLA-4, a CD28 homologue expressed on activated T cells, binds with high affinity to the CD28 ligands, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). This study was designed to examine the role of CTLA-4 in regulating autoimmune disease. Murine relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) is a demyelinating disease mediated by PLP139- 151-specific CD4+ T cells in SJL/J mice. Anti-CTLA-4 mAbs (or their F(ab) fragments) enhanced in vitro proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by PLP139-151-primed lymph node cells. Addition of either reagent to in vitro activation cultures potentiated the ability of T cells to adoptively transfer disease to naive recipients. In vivo administration of anti-CTLA-4 mAb to recipients of PLP139-151-specific T cells resulted in accelerated and exacerbated disease. Finally, anti- CTLA-4 treatment of mice during disease remission resulted in the exacerbation of relapses. Collectively, these results suggest that CTLA- 4 mediates the downregulation of ongoing immune responses and plays a major role in regulating autoimmunity.
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              A CTLA-4 gene polymorphism is associated with both Graves disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

              The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, result from a complex interaction between genetic, environmental and endogenous factors. The genetic loci conferring susceptibility remain unclear. A recent report has demonstrated an association between a microsatellite polymorphism of the CTLA-4 gene (allele 106) on chromosome 2q33 and Graves' disease in Caucasian patients in the USA. The aim of the present study was to confirm this association in UK patients and to determine whether this polymorphism is also associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. Analysis of Caucasian patients with autoimmune thyroid disease from a single clinic, compared to local Caucasian controls. We studied 112 patients with Graves' disease, 44 with autoimmune hypothyroidism and 91 controls. CTLA-4 microsatellite gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA and resolution of the products on sequencing gels. As in previous studies, 21 alleles of the CTLA-4 microsatellite region were detected. Allele 106 was significantly increased in patients with Graves' disease (P = 0.006) and in those with autoimmune hypothyroidism (P = 0.02) when compared to controls. There was no significant difference between the groups in the distribution of the other alleles and no association between allele 106 and sex, HLA-DR or -DQ specificities or the presence of ophthalmopathy in the Graves' patients. These results confirm that the CTLA-4 gene, or one closely associated with it, confers susceptibility to Grave's disease but is not specific as the CTLA-4 106 allele is also associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. This association seems to be with autoimmune thyroid disease in general.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                April 2005
                06 April 2005
                : 63
                : 2
                : 55-60
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Daini Hospital, bInternal Medicine, Nerima General Hospital, Tokyo, cChiba Children’s Hospital, dMatsudo Municipal Hospital,
                Article
                83137 Horm Res 2005;63:55–60
                10.1159/000083137
                15640608
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 6
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