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Piezoelectric-transducer-based miniature catheter for ultrahigh-speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography

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      We developed a piezoelectric-transducer- (PZT) based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.5 mm for ultrahigh-speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). A miniaturized PZT bender actuates a fiber and the beam is scanned through a GRIN lens and micro-prism to provide high-speed, side-viewing capability. The probe optics can be pulled back over a long distance to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data sets covering a large area. Imaging is performed with 11 μm axial resolution in air (8 μm in tissue) and 20 μm transverse resolution, at 960 frames per second with a Fourier domain mode-locked laser operating at 480 kHz axial scan rate. Using a high-speed data acquisition system, endoscopic OCT imaging of the rabbit esophagus and colon in vivo and human colon specimens ex vivo is demonstrated.

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      Most cited references 19

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      Optical coherence tomography.

      A technique called optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. OCT uses low-coherence interferometry to produce a two-dimensional image of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures in a way that is analogous to ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging. OCT has longitudinal and lateral spatial resolutions of a few micrometers and can detect reflected signals as small as approximately 10(-10) of the incident optical power. Tomographic imaging is demonstrated in vitro in the peripapillary area of the retina and in the coronary artery, two clinically relevant examples that are representative of transparent and turbid media, respectively.
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        In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography.

        Current medical imaging technologies allow visualization of tissue anatomy in the human body at resolutions ranging from 100 micrometers to 1 millimeter. These technologies are generally not sensitive enough to detect early-stage tissue abnormalities associated with diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis, which require micrometer-scale resolution. Here, optical coherence tomography was adapted to allow high-speed visualization of tissue in a living animal with a catheter-endoscope 1 millimeter in diameter. This method, referred to as "optical biopsy," was used to obtain cross-sectional images of the rabbit gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts at 10-micrometer resolution.
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          Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second.

          We demonstrate ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain ophthalmic OCT imaging using a short cavity swept laser at 100,000 - 400,000 axial scan rates. Several design configurations illustrate tradeoffs in imaging speed, sensitivity, axial resolution, and imaging depth. Variable rate A/D optical clocking is used to acquire linear-in-k OCT fringe data at 100 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution in tissue. Fixed rate sampling at 1 GSPS achieves a 7.5mm imaging range in tissue with 6.0 um axial resolution at 100 kHz axial scan rate. A 200 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution over 4mm imaging range is achieved by buffering the laser sweep. Dual spot OCT using two parallel interferometers achieves 400 kHz axial scan rate, almost 2X faster than previous 1050 nm ophthalmic results and 20X faster than current commercial instruments. Superior sensitivity roll-off performance is shown. Imaging is demonstrated in the human retina and anterior segment. Wide field 12x12 mm data sets include the macula and optic nerve head. Small area, high density imaging shows individual cone photoreceptors. The 7.5 mm imaging range configuration can show the cornea, iris, and anterior lens in a single image. These improvements in imaging speed and depth range provide important advantages for ophthalmic imaging. The ability to rapidly acquire 3D-OCT data over a wide field of view promises to simplify examination protocols. The ability to image fine structures can provide detailed information on focal pathologies. The large imaging range and improved image penetration at 1050 m wavelengths promises to improve performance for instrumentation which images both the retina and anterior eye. These advantages suggest that swept source OCT at 1050 nm wavelengths will play an important role in future ophthalmic instrumentation.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
            [2 ]Advanced Imaging Group, Thorlabs, Inc., Newton, NJ, USA
            [3 ]Pattern Recognition Lab and Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
            Author notes
            Biomed Opt Express
            Biomedical Optics Express
            Optical Society of America
            29 July 2011
            01 August 2011
            29 July 2011
            : 2
            : 8
            : 2438-2448
            ©2011 Optical Society of America

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License, which permits download and redistribution, provided that the original work is properly cited. This license restricts the article from being modified or used commercially.

            Funded by: National Institute of Health
            Award ID: R01-CA75289-13
            Award ID: R01-EY011289-25
            Award ID: R01-HL095717-02
            Funded by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research
            Award ID: FA9550-10-1-0063
            Funded by: Medical Free Electron Laser Program
            Award ID: FA9550-10-1-0551
            Funded by: German Research Foundation
            Award ID: DFG-GSC80-SAOT
            Funded by: Center for Integration of Medicine and Innovation Technology
            Endoscopes, Catheters and Micro-Optics
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