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      Hebeloma in the Malay Peninsula: Masquerading within Psathyrella

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          In 1994 Corner published five new species within the genus Psathyrella , all having been collected on the Malay Peninsula between 1929 and 1930. Three of these species belong to the genus Hebeloma and with their vinaceous colored lamellae and spore print, when fresh, they belong to H. sect. Porphyrospora . Of these three species, only one, P. flavidifolia , was validly published and thus we herewith recombine it as H. flavidifolium . The other two species, P. splendens and P. verrucispora , are synonyms of H. parvisporum and H. lactariolens , respectively. We also describe a new Malayan species, H. radicans , which also belongs to H. sect. Porphyrospora . These findings confirm the western Pacific Rim as a diversity hotspot for H. sect. Porphyrospora . The records described within this paper, represent the first recognition that the genus Hebeloma , and indeed that members of the ectomycorrhizal Hymenogastraceae , are present on the Malay Peninsula.

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

            Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                28 January 2021
                : 77
                : 117-141
                [1 ] Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191, Stuttgart, Germany
                [2 ] Rue Père de Deken 19, B-1040, Bruxelles, Belgium
                [3 ] Royal Holloway College, University of London, Egham, UK
                [4 ] Plantentuin Meise, Nieuwelaan 38, B-1860, Meise, Belgium
                [5 ] Forest Health and Conservation Programme, Biodiversity Division, Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Malaysia
                [6 ] Schlossfeld 17, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ursula Eberhardt ( ursula.eberhardt@ 123456smns-bw.de )

                Academic editor: M.P. Martín

                Ursula Eberhardt, Nicole Schütz, Henry J. Beker, Su See Lee, Egon Horak

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Privately funded; institutional funding of the Staatliches Museum Stuttgart; Malaysian Government
                Research Article
                Molecular Systematics
                Far East


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