Renal dysfunction is one of the most common and threatening complications in heart transplant recipients. Even if ciclosporin seems to play a central role in inducing renal damage, other factors may concur or predispose to renal injury. In order to identify factors responsible for renal dysfunction, we retrospectively studied a cohort of 114 cardiac transplant recipients during a follow-up period of at least 3 years. The patients had a normal renal function before and 0.5 months after heart transplantation. Doubling of baseline serum creatinine or attainment of serum creatinine steadily above 176.8 µmol/l (2.0 mg/dl) was used as criterion to define the end-point renal dysfunction. A series of clinical and laboratory variables were obtained from the patients’ charts at different time intervals, and their prognostic value for the occurrence of renal dysfunction was calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. 23 out of 114 patients reached the end point after a median time period of 21 months. High serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ciclosporin, urea, glucose, and hemoglobin levels were shown to be associated with the development of renal dysfunction. Four variables, i.e., triglyceride, ciclosporin, urea, and alkaline phosphatase, had an independent prognostic value. Our results confirm a role for ciclosporin in inducing renal dysfunction and identify hyperlipidemia and an increased plasma urea level as risk factors for renal dysfunction in heart transplant recipients.