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      Protein Phosphatase 2A: Role in T Cells and Diseases

      1 , 2 , , 3
      Journal of Immunology Research

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          Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine–threonine phosphatase that plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and signal transduction. The catalytic activity of PP2A is integral in the maintenance of physiological functions which gets severely impaired in its absence. PP2A plays an essential role in the activation, differentiation, and functions of T cells. PP2A suppresses Th1 cell differentiation while promoting Th2 cell differentiation. PP2A fosters Th17 cell differentiation which contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by enhancing the transactivation of the Il17 gene. Genetic deletion of PP2A in Tregs disrupts Foxp3 expression due to hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling which impairs the development and immunosuppressive functions of Tregs. PP2A is important in the induction of Th9 cells and promotes their antitumor functions. PP2A activation has shown to reduce neuroinflammation in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and is now used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) clinically. In this review, we will discuss the structure and functions of PP2A in T cell differentiation and diseases and therapeutic applications of PP2A-mediated immunotherapy.

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          We have catalogued the protein kinase complement of the human genome (the "kinome") using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. This provides a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states, as well as a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family. We identify 518 putative protein kinase genes, of which 71 have not previously been reported or described as kinases, and we extend or correct the protein sequences of 56 more kinases. New genes include members of well-studied families as well as previously unidentified families, some of which are conserved in model organisms. Classification and comparison with model organism kinomes identified orthologous groups and highlighted expansions specific to human and other lineages. We also identified 106 protein kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping revealed several small clusters of kinase genes and revealed that 244 kinases map to disease loci or cancer amplicons.
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            Immune checkpoint blockade: a common denominator approach to cancer therapy.

            The immune system recognizes and is poised to eliminate cancer but is held in check by inhibitory receptors and ligands. These immune checkpoint pathways, which normally maintain self-tolerance and limit collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses, can be co-opted by cancer to evade immune destruction. Drugs interrupting immune checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and others in early development, can unleash anti-tumor immunity and mediate durable cancer regressions. The complex biology of immune checkpoint pathways still contains many mysteries, and the full activity spectrum of checkpoint-blocking drugs, used alone or in combination, is currently the subject of intense study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells.

              We describe de novo generation of IL-17-producing T cells from naive CD4 T cells, induced in cocultures of naive CD4 T cells and naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ T cells (Treg) in the presence of TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 stimuli. Treg can be substituted by TGFbeta1, which, together with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, supports the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells, a process that is amplified by IL-1beta and TNFalpha. We could not detect a role for IL-23 in the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells but confirmed its importance for their survival and expansion. Transcription factors GATA-3 and T-bet, as well as its target Hlx, are absent in IL-17-producing T cells, and they do not express the negative regulator for TGFbeta signaling, Smad7. Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells.

                Author and article information

                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                Journal of Immunology Research
                17 May 2023
                : 2023
                : 4522053
                1Immuno-Biology Laboratory, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, India
                2Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
                3Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Baohui Xu

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Suyasha Roy and Lalit Batra.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 21 January 2023
                : 2 May 2023
                : 4 May 2023
                Funded by: Translational Health Science and Technology Institute
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