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Management of severe obstructive sleep apnea using mandibular advancement devices with auto continuous positive airway pressures

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      Abstract

      The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations.

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      Most cited references 22

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      Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy: the challenge to effective treatment.

      Despite the high efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to reverse upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea, treatment effectiveness is limited by variable adherence to prescribed therapy. When adherence is defined as greater than 4 hours of nightly use, 46 to 83% of patients with obstructive sleep apnea have been reported to be nonadherent to treatment. Evidence suggests that use of CPAP for longer than 6 hours decreases sleepiness, improves daily functioning, and restores memory to normal levels. The decision to embrace CPAP occurs during the first few days of treatment. Although many strategies in patient interface with CPAP or machine modality are marketed to improve CPAP usage, there are few data to support this. No single factor has been consistently identified as predictive of adherence. Patient perception of symptoms and improvement in sleepiness and daily functioning may be more important in determining patterns of use than physiologic aspects of disease severity. Emerging data suggest that various behavioral interventions may be effective in improving CPAP adherence.
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        Adult obstructive sleep apnoea.

        Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss.
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          Oral appliances for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea: a review.

          We conducted an evidence-based review of literature regarding use of oral appliances (OAs) in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) from 1995 until the present. Our structured search revealed 141 articles for systematic scrutiny, of which 87 were suitable for inclusion in the evidence base, including 15 Level I to II randomized controlled trials and 5 of these trials with placebo-controlled treatment. The efficacy of OAs was established for controlling OSA in some but not all patients with success (defined as no more than 10 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep) achieved in an average of 52% of treated patients. Effects on sleepiness and quality of life were also demonstrated, but improvements in other neurocognitive outcomes were not consistent. The mechanism of OA therapy is related to opening of the upper airway as demonstrated by imaging and physiologic monitoring. Treatment adherence is variable with patients reporting using the appliance a median of 77% of nights at 1 year. Minor adverse effects were frequent whereas major adverse effects were uncommon. Minor tooth movement and small changes in the occlusion developed in some patients after prolonged use, but the long-term dental significance of this is uncertain. In comparison to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), OAs are less efficacious in reducing the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), but OAs appear to be used more (at least by self report), and in many studies were preferred over CPAP when the treatments were compared. OAs have also been compared favorably to surgical modification of the upper airway (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, UPPP). Comparisons between OAs of different designs have produced variable findings. The literature of OA therapy for OSA now provides better evidence for the efficacy of this treatment modality and considerable guidance regarding the frequency of adverse effects and the indications for use in comparison to CPAP and UPPP.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
            [1 ] Department of Prosthodontics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence: Dr. Rasmi Upadhyay, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: rash.georgian@ 123456gmail.com
            Journal
            Lung India
            Lung India
            LI
            Lung India : Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            0970-2113
            0974-598X
            Mar-Apr 2015
            : 32
            : 2
            : 158-161
            4372871
            LI-32-158
            10.4103/0970-2113.152632
            Copyright: © Lung India

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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