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      Polyphenols as Potential Attenuators of Heat Stress in Poultry Production

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          Abstract

          Heat stress is a non-specific physiological response of the body when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which can break the balance of body redox and result in oxidative stress that affects growth performance as well as the health of poultry species. Polyphenols have attracted much attention in recent years due to their antioxidant ability and thus, can be an effective attenuator of heat stress. In this paper, the potential mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of polyphenols on heat stress in poultry has been reviewed to provide a reference and ideas for future studies related to polyphenols and poultry production.

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          Most cited references53

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          High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans.

          The dietary polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to have chemopreventive activity against cardiovascular disease and a variety of cancers in model systems, but it is not clear whether the drug reaches the proposed sites of action in vivo after oral ingestion, especially in humans. In this study, we examined the absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of 14C-resveratrol after oral and i.v. doses in six human volunteers. The absorption of a dietary relevant 25-mg oral dose was at least 70%, with peak plasma levels of resveratrol and metabolites of 491 +/- 90 ng/ml (about 2 microM) and a plasma half-life of 9.2 +/- 0.6 h. However, only trace amounts of unchanged resveratrol (<5 ng/ml) could be detected in plasma. Most of the oral dose was recovered in urine, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis identified three metabolic pathways, i.e., sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugation of the phenolic groups and, interestingly, hydrogenation of the aliphatic double bond, the latter likely produced by the intestinal microflora. Extremely rapid sulfate conjugation by the intestine/liver appears to be the rate-limiting step in resveratrol's bioavailability. Although the systemic bioavailability of resveratrol is very low, accumulation of resveratrol in epithelial cells along the aerodigestive tract and potentially active resveratrol metabolites may still produce cancer-preventive and other effects.
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            Bioavailability of resveratrol.

            This paper reviews our current understanding of the absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of resveratrol, with an emphasis on humans. The oral absorption of resveratrol in humans is about 75% and is thought to occur mainly by transepithelial diffusion. Extensive metabolism in the intestine and liver results in an oral bioavailability considerably less than 1%. Dose escalation and repeated dose administration of resveratrol does not appear to alter this significantly. Metabolic studies, both in plasma and in urine, have revealed major metabolites to be glucuronides and sulfates of resveratrol. However, reduced dihydroresveratrol conjugates, in addition to highly polar unknown products, may account for as much as 50% of an oral resveratrol dose. Although major sites of metabolism include the intestine and liver (as expected), colonic bacterial metabolism may be more important than previously thought. Deconjugation enzymes such as β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, as well as specific tissue accumulation of resveratrol, may enhance resveratrol efficacy at target sites. Resveratrol analogs, such as methylated derivatives with improved bioavailability, may be important in future research. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.
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              Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens.

              Studies on environmental consequences of stress on animal production have grown substantially in the last few years for economic and animal welfare reasons. Physiological, hormonal, and immunological deficits as well as increases in animals' susceptibility to diseases have been reported after different stressors in broiler chickens. The aim of the current experiment is to describe the effects of 2 different heat stressors (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C/10 h per d) applied to broiler chickens from d 35 to 42 of life on the corticosterone serum levels, performance parameters, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity, correlating and discussing the obtained data under a neuroimmune perspective. In our study, we demonstrated that heat stress (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) increased the corticosterone serum levels and decreased BW gain and food intake. Only chickens submitted to 36 +/- 1 degrees C, however, presented a decrease in feed conversion and increased mortality. We also showed a decrease of bursa of Fabricius (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C), thymus (36 +/- 1 degrees C), and spleen (36 +/- 1 degrees C) relative weights and of macrophage basal (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) and Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative burst (31 +/- 1 degrees C). Finally, mild multifocal acute enteritis characterized by an increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the jejunum's lamina propria was also observed. The stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was taken as responsible for the negative effects observed on the chickens' performance and immune function and also the changes of the intestinal mucosa. The present obtained data corroborate with others in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                18 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 8
                : 3
                : 67
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; rzhi479@ 123456163.com (R.H.); mbayor88@ 123456gmail.com (M.A.A.)
                [2 ]College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; hyj39306@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: wush688@ 123456hunau.edu.cn (S.W.); jianhuahy@ 123456hunau.net (J.H.); Tel.: +86-136-5735-5343 (S.W.); +86-731-846-18176 (J.H.)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5256-927X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9289-4405
                Article
                antioxidants-08-00067
                10.3390/antiox8030067
                6466569
                30889815
                fd0d4b7b-e7ef-48c1-b5ae-32e388c19979
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 01 February 2019
                : 28 February 2019
                Categories
                Review

                heat stress,oxidative stress,polyphenols,poultry
                heat stress, oxidative stress, polyphenols, poultry

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