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      Diagnostic Value of Salivary Cortisol in Children with Abnormal Adrenal Cortex Functions

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          Abstract

          Aims: It has been shown that the free cortisol level in saliva may reflect plasma free cortisol. The measurement of cortisol in saliva is a simple method, and as such it is important in the pediatric age group. In this research, the diagnostic value of measurement of salivary cortisol (SC) measurement was examined in adrenal insufficiency (AI). Methods: Fifty-one patients, mean age 10.8 ± 4.29, who were investigated for possible AI, were included. Basal cortisol levels were below 18 µg/dl. Adrenal function was determined by low-dose ACTH test. During the test, samples for SC were obtained simultaneously with serum samples (at 0–10–20–30–40 min). Results: Mean basal serum cortisol level was 8.21 ± 4.10 µg/dl (mean ± SD). Basal SC was correlated to basal serum cortisol (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). A cut-off of 0.94 µg/dl for SC differentiated adrenal insufficient subjects from normals with a sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 77%, respectively. A peak SC less than 0.62 µg/dl defined AI with a specificity of 100%; however, sensitivity was 44%. Conclusion: Measurement of SC may be used in the evaluation of AI. It is well-correlated to serum cortisol. Peak SC in low-dose ACTH test can be used to differentiate patients with AI in the initial evaluation of individuals with suspected AI.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Age of appearance of circadian rhythm in salivary cortisol values in infancy.

          Samples of saliva (4 in 24 hours), collected at monthly intervals for the first 6 months of life in 8 term infants by their mothers, were analysed for cortisol by radioimmunoassay. Values in the first month were more variable, daily mean values were greater, and amplitudes of variation were greater than in subsequent months. The circadian rhythm appeared by the third month.
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            Value of basal plasma cortisol assays in the assessment of pituitary-adrenal insufficiency.

             F Lithner,  E Hägg,  K Asplund (1987)
            A basal plasma cortisol value taken in a physically unstressed state in 68 patients with or without hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical disease was compared with the maximal plasma cortisol concentration during an insulin tolerance test. There was a strong positive correlation between the values. Basal cortisol levels above 300 nmol/l (RIA method) almost excluded ACTH-cortisol insufficiency and those below 100 nmol/l strongly suggested dysfunction. A repeated basal cortisol estimation within a month was especially valuable in categorizing patients with levels between 100 and 200 nmol/l. We suggest that a basal cortisol measurement may be used as a first laboratory test in patients evaluated for possible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical insufficiency; in many patients, this approach obviates more sophisticated and expensive testing.
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              Salivary cortisol measurement: a practical approach to assess pituitary-adrenal function.

              The salivary cortisol concentration is an excellent indicator of the plasma free cortisol concentration. To establish its normal and pathological ranges, salivary cortisol concentrations were measured in 101 normal adults, 18 patients with Cushing's syndrome, and 21 patients with adrenal insufficiency. The normal subjects had a mean (+/- SEM) salivary cortisol concentration of 15.5 +/- 0.8 nmol/L (range, 10.2-27.3) at 0800 h and 3.9 +/- 0.2 nmol/L (range, 2.2-4.1) at 2000 h (n = 20). The mean value 60 min after ACTH administration in 58 normal subjects was 52.2 +/- 2.2 nmol/L (range, 23.5-99.4), and it was 1.4 +/- 1.1 nmol/L (range, 1.6-3) at 0800 h in 23 normal subjects given 1 mg dexamethasone 8 h earlier. In patients with primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency (n = 21) the mean salivary cortisol level was 7.5 +/- 0.4 nmol/L (range, 1.9-21.8) 60 min after ACTH. In patients with Cushing's syndrome (n = 7), the mean value after the 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test was 16.1 +/- 7.8 nmol/L (range, 5.8-66.8). No overlap was found between the values in the normal subjects and those in the patients during the dynamic tests. Discrepancies between salivary and total plasma cortisol were found in 8 patients with adrenal insufficiency, which may be explained by the effects of drugs such as thyroid hormones, Op'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, and psychotropic agents. We conclude that salivary cortisol measurements are an excellent index of plasma free cortisol concentrations. They circumvent the physiological, pathological, and pharmacological changes due to corticosteroid-binding globulin alterations and offer a practical approach to assess pituitary-adrenal function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                May 2007
                28 February 2007
                : 67
                : 6
                : 301-306
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                100363 Horm Res 2007;67:301–306
                10.1159/000100363
                17337901
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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