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      Invasion history of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Ecuador

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          Abstract

          Harmonia axyridis is a ladybird extensively used around the world for biological control of agricultural pests. However, it has become invasive in several countries, producing negative ecological and socio-economic impacts. Herein, we review the invasion history of the Harlequin Ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) in Ecuador. Although first reported in Ecuador in 2012, museum specimens date back to 2004 and it is currently established across the country, especially along the Andean region. Due to its invasive nature, further studies are urgently needed to evaluate possible impacts of H. axyridis on the Ecuadorian biodiversity and agroindustry.

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          Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions.

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            Characterizing ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions: the role of ecosystem engineers

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              The point-radius method for georeferencing locality descriptions and calculating associated uncertainty

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                2167-8359
                27 November 2020
                2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ , Quito, Ecuador
                [2 ]Instituto de Diversidad Biológica Tropical iBIOTROP, Museo de Zoología & Laboratorio de Zoología Terrestre, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ , Quito, Ecuador
                Article
                10461
                10.7717/peerj.10461
                7703374
                © 2020 Cisneros-Heredia and Peñaherrera-Romero

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ
                Funded by: Instituto de Diversidad Biológica Tropical iBIOTROP, Museo de Zoología & Laboratorio de Zoología Terrestre
                This study was supported by Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ (Research Funds for projects ID 35 “Biodiversity of urban and rural areas of Ecuador”, and ID 1057 “Impacts of habitat changes on the biological diversity of the northern tropical Andes”, Outreach project “Celebrando la Naturaleza” 2017–2020, and Publication Fund to Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia) and operative funds assigned to Instituto de Diversidad Biológica Tropical iBIOTROP, Museo de Zoología & Laboratorio de Zoología Terrestre, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA and by Programa “Becas de Excelencia” of Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación SENESCYT, Ecuador. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Biodiversity
                Entomology
                Zoology

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