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      Invasion history of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Ecuador


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          Harmonia axyridis is a ladybird extensively used around the world for biological control of agricultural pests. However, it has become invasive in several countries, producing negative ecological and socio-economic impacts. Herein, we review the invasion history of the Harlequin Ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) in Ecuador. Although first reported in Ecuador in 2012, museum specimens date back to 2004 and it is currently established across the country, especially along the Andean region. Due to its invasive nature, further studies are urgently needed to evaluate possible impacts of H. axyridis on the Ecuadorian biodiversity and agroindustry.

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          Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions.

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            Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool

            Abstract GeoCAT is an open source, browser based tool that performs rapid geospatial analysis to ease the process of Red Listing taxa. Developed to utilise spatially referenced primary occurrence data, the analysis focuses on two aspects of the geographic range of a taxon: the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO). These metrics form part of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria and have often proved challenging to obtain in an accurate, consistent and repeatable way. Within a familiar Google Maps environment, GeoCAT users can quickly and easily combine data from multiple sources such as GBIF, Flickr and Scratchpads as well as user generated occurrence data. Analysis is done with the click of a button and is visualised instantly, providing an indication of the Red List threat rating, subject to meeting the full requirements of the criteria. Outputs including the results, data and parameters used for analysis are stored in a GeoCAT file that can be easily reloaded or shared with collaborators. GeoCAT is a first step toward automating the data handling process of Red List assessing and provides a valuable hub from which further developments and enhancements can be spawned.
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              Impacts of biological invasions: what's what and the way forward.

              Study of the impacts of biological invasions, a pervasive component of global change, has generated remarkable understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of the spread of introduced populations. The growing field of invasion science, poised at a crossroads where ecology, social sciences, resource management, and public perception meet, is increasingly exposed to critical scrutiny from several perspectives. Although the rate of biological invasions, elucidation of their consequences, and knowledge about mitigation are growing rapidly, the very need for invasion science is disputed. Here, we highlight recent progress in understanding invasion impacts and management, and discuss the challenges that the discipline faces in its science and interactions with society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                27 November 2020
                : 8
                : e10461
                [1 ]Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ , Quito, Ecuador
                [2 ]Instituto de Diversidad Biológica Tropical iBIOTROP, Museo de Zoología & Laboratorio de Zoología Terrestre, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ , Quito, Ecuador
                Author information
                © 2020 Cisneros-Heredia and Peñaherrera-Romero

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                : 28 February 2019
                : 10 November 2020
                Funded by: Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ
                Funded by: Instituto de Diversidad Biológica Tropical iBIOTROP, Museo de Zoología & Laboratorio de Zoología Terrestre
                This study was supported by Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ (Research Funds for projects ID 35 “Biodiversity of urban and rural areas of Ecuador”, and ID 1057 “Impacts of habitat changes on the biological diversity of the northern tropical Andes”, Outreach project “Celebrando la Naturaleza” 2017–2020, and Publication Fund to Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia) and operative funds assigned to Instituto de Diversidad Biológica Tropical iBIOTROP, Museo de Zoología & Laboratorio de Zoología Terrestre, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA and by Programa “Becas de Excelencia” of Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación SENESCYT, Ecuador. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

                andes,range extension,new records,coccinellinae,distribution,harlequin ladybird,introduced species,elevation,natural history


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