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      Impact of depression on change in coronary heart disease risk status: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between depression and change in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk status by an analysis of examination data in the general Korean population.

          Patients and methods

          We examined 1,851 men and 1,689 women (aged 43–73 years) for the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study Ansan between 2005 and 2012. The estimated CHD risk score of participants was calculated using the Framingham CHD risk score in baseline and after 8-year follow-up period. Among them, population with low Framingham CHD risk score (<10%) in baseline (n=1,582) was used for further analyses. The low Framingham CHD risk score participants were assigned to one of two groups based on the Beck depression inventory (BDI) score: no depression (BDI <10) and depression (BDI ≥10). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to test whether depression was associated with participants’ status change to intermediate or high CHD risk score (≥10%) in men and women, respectively, after 8-year follow-up period.

          Results

          Women with depression showed significant higher rates of changing to intermediate or high CHD risk score status when compared with women without depression even after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.08–2.03). However, depression was not associated with intermediate or high CHD risk score status in men (adjusted OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.95–1.82).

          Conclusion

          This general population-based cohort study provides evidence that depression can affect the risk of changing CHD risk score status in women.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

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          Depression as an aetiologic and prognostic factor in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 6362 events among 146 538 participants in 54 observational studies.

          With negative treatment trials, the role of depression as an aetiological or prognostic factor in coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We quantified the effect of depression on CHD, assessing the extent of confounding by coronary risk factors and disease severity. Meta-analysis of cohort studies measuring depression with follow-up for fatal CHD/incident myocardial infarction (aetiological) or all-cause mortality/fatal CHD (prognostic). We searched MEDLINE and Science Citation Index until December 2003. In 21 aetiological studies, the pooled relative risk of future CHD associated with depression was 1.81 (95% CI 1.53-2.15). Adjusted results were included for 11 studies, with adjustment reducing the crude effect marginally from 2.08 (1.69-2.55) to 1.90 (1.49-2.42). In 34 prognostic studies, the pooled relative risk was 1.80 (1.50-2.15). Results adjusted for left ventricular function result were available in only eight studies; and this attenuated the relative risk from 2.18 to 1.53 (1.11-2.10), a 48% reduction. Both aetiological and prognostic studies without adjusted results had lower unadjusted effect sizes than studies from which adjusted results were included (P<0.01). Depression has yet to be established as an independent risk factor for CHD because of incomplete and biased availability of adjustment for conventional risk factors and severity of coronary disease.
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            The impact of confounder selection criteria on effect estimation.

             R Mickey,  S Greenland (1988)
            Much controversy exists regarding proper methods for the selection of variables in confounder control. Many authors condemn any use of significance testing, some encourage such testing, and other propose a mixed approach. This paper presents the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of several confounder selection criteria, including change-in-estimate and collapsibility test criteria. The methods are compared with respect to their impact on inferences regarding the study factor's effect, as measured by test size and power, bias, mean-squared error, and confidence interval coverage rates. In situations in which the best decision (of whether or not to adjust) is not always obvious, the change-in-estimate criterion tends to be superior, though significance testing methods can perform acceptably if their significance levels are set much higher than conventional levels (to values of 0.20 or more).
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              Major depression in individuals with chronic medical disorders: prevalence, correlates and association with health resource utilization, lost productivity and functional disability.

               Leonard Egede (2007)
              The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and odds of major depression and the incremental effect of major depression on utilization, lost productivity and functional disability in individuals with common chronic medical disorders. Data on 30,801 adults from the 1999 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed. The 12-month prevalence and age/sex-adjusted odds of major depression were calculated for adults with hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic condition status (with and without major depression) and utilization, lost productivity and functional disability was determined by controlling for covariates. The 12-month prevalence and age/sex-adjusted odds of major depression by chronic conditions were as follows: CHF, 7.9% [odds ratio (OR)=1.96]; HTN, 8.0% (OR=2.00); DM, 9.3% (OR=1.96); CAD, 9.3% (OR=2.30); CVA, 11.4% (OR=3.15); COPD, 15.4% (OR=3.21); ESRD, 17.0% (OR=3.56); any chronic condition, 8.8% (OR=2.61). Compared to adults without chronic conditions, those with chronic conditions plus major depression had greater odds of > or = 1 ambulatory visit [OR=1.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.28, 1.77]; > or = 1 emergency room visit (OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.55, 2.45); and > or = 1 day in bed due to illness (OR=1.60; 95% CI=1.28, 2.00); and functional disability (OR=2.48; 95% CI=1.96, 3.15). The 12-month prevalence and odds of major depression are high in individuals with chronic medical conditions, and major depression is associated with significant increases in utilization, lost productivity and functional disability.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                10 January 2018
                : 14
                : 121-128
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul
                [2 ]Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: In-Wha Kim; Jung Mi Oh, College of Pharmacy and Research, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 880 7997, Fax +82 2 766 9560, Email iwkim2@ 123456hanmail.net ; jmoh@ 123456snu.ac.kr
                Article
                tcrm-14-121
                10.2147/TCRM.S149501
                5768190
                © 2018 Jang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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