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      Contrast-enhanced cardiac Magnetic Resonance: distinction between cardiac sarcoidosis and infarction scar

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          Objectives: To review the value of delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CECMR) in differentiating patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) from those with coronary artery disease and recent myocardial infarctions. Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) accurately delineates myocardial necrosis or fibrosis. The pattern of LGE in ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial disease is different, and might be helpful in distinguishing CS from ischemic disease. Methods: The CECMR studies of 30 patients with CS were compared to those performed in 30 consecutive infarct patients, who had been managed with primary coronary interventions, and 10 healthy controls. Two experienced blinded observers classified patients by assessing the distribution of LGE. Results: LV LGE was present in 29/30 CS (mean 3.8 segments, range 0-12), all infarct (mean 4.3 segments, range 0-9), and none of the patients in the control group. The amount of LV LGE did not differ significantly between CS and infarct patients (19 ± 11% and 19 ± 12%, P= 0.8). The CS group exhibited a predominantly patchy, 3 layer LGE (P = 0.01), whereas confluent transmural LGE (P = 0.04) with a vascular distribution (P < 0.001) was prevalent in the infarct group. Significantly more RV LGE (P = 0.01) and dilation (P = 0.02) were found in the CS group. The two observers classified patients correctly as CS in 72% and 83% of cases, as ischemic in nature in 77% and 80% of cases, and as normal in 90% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Gadolinium CMR was helpful in differentiating patients with CS from patients with ischemic heart disease and previous myocardial infarctions. In a subgroup of ischemic patients the pattern of LGE was atypical, and suggestive of non-ischemic etiology. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2017; 34: 307-314)

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          Most cited references 13

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          Delayed enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies.

          Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies (NICMs) are chronic, progressive myocardial diseases with distinct patterns of morphological, functional, and electrophysiological changes. In the setting of cardiomyopathy (CM), determining the exact aetiology is important because the aetiology is directly related to treatment and patient survival. Determining the exact aetiology, however, can be difficult using currently available imaging techniques, such as echocardiography, radionuclide imaging or X-ray coronary angiography, since overlap of features between CMs may be encountered. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has recently emerged as a new non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing high-resolution images of the heart in any desired plane. Delayed contrast enhanced CMR (DE-CMR) can be used for non-invasive tissue characterization and may hold promise in differentiating ischaemic from NICMs, as the typical pattern of hyperenhancement can be classified as 'ischaemic-type' or 'non-ischaemic type' on the basis of pathophysiology of ischaemia. This article reviews the potential of DE-CMR to distinguish between ischaemic and NICM as well as to differentiate non-ischaemic aetiologies. Rather than simply describing various hyperenhancement patterns that may occur in different disease states, our goal will be (i) to provide an overall imaging approach for the diagnosis of CM and (ii) to demonstrate how this approach is based on the underlying relationships between contrast enhancement and myocardial pathophysiology.
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            Clinical indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR): Consensus Panel report.

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              Evaluation of the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis.

              This study analyzed the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). The diagnosis of CS was made according to the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (1993); CMR has not been incorporated into the guidelines, and the diagnostic accuracy of CMR for the diagnosis of CS has not yet been evaluated. We performed an analysis of 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs), 24-h ambulatory ECGs, echocardiograms, thallium scintigrams, and gadolinium-enhanced CMR studies in 58 biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis patients assessed for CS. The diagnostic accuracy of CMR for CS was determined using modified Japanese guidelines as the gold standard. The diagnosis of CS was made in 12 of 58 patients (21%); CMR revealed late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), mostly involving basal and lateral segments (73%), in 19 patients. In 8 of the 19 patients, scintigraphy was normal, while patchy LGE was present. The sensitivity and specificity of CMR were 100% (95% confidence interval, 78% to 100%) and 78% (95% confidence interval, 64% to 89%), and the positive and negative predictive values were 55% and 100%, respectively, with an overall accuracy of 83%. In patients with sarcoidosis, CMR is a useful diagnostic tool to determine cardiac involvement. New diagnostic guidelines should include CMR.

                Author and article information

                Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis
                Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis
                Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases
                Mattioli 1885 (Italy )
                28 April 2017
                : 34
                : 4
                : 307-314
                [1 ] Departments of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, The Netherlands
                [2 ] Department of Cardiology and Radiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ] The Cardiac Clinic, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [4 ] Schnetler, Corbett and Associates, Panorama Medi-Clinic, Cape Town, South Africa
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jan-Peter Smedema Suite 2C5, Netcare Blaauwberg Hospital, Waterville Crescent, Sunningdale 7441, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa Tel. 021-5543731 - Fax 021-5543741 E-mail: jansmedema@ 123456hotmail.com
                Copyright: © 2017

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

                Original Article: Clinical Research


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