The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) in dialysis setting is still a nonstandard datum. In particular, it is not known of the phenomenon is stable or increasing or decreasing, even in a given geographical area. We studied the behavior of anti-HCV prevalence during a 12-month follow-up in 415 hemodialysis patients treated at a single institution and belonging to a limited geographical area with standard HCV endemic. Point prevalence of anti-HCV has shown a tendency to growth linked in part of the incidence of infection, in part to new positivities in patients already on dialysis treatment. More than 50% of the new HCV-positive patients, had no history of classical parenteral transmission of the virus. These findings suggest that HCV infection is a phenomenon on the increase in dialysis units and that dialysis treatment emerges as an independent risk factor in contracting infection.