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      Population Pharmacokinetic Modelling for Nifedipine to Evaluate the Effect of Parathyroid Hormone on CYP3A in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease


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          Parathyroid hormone (PTH) can induce the downregulation of CYP3A in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nevertheless, the effect of PTH on CYP3A-mediated clearance pathways from a clinical perspective remains unclear.


          This study employed population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling to delineate potential changes in CYP3A activity in patients with CKD. Pharmacokinetic data for nifedipine, a typical CYP3A substrate, as well as covariate information, were prospectively collected from 157 patients with a total of 612 concentrations. PopPK data analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effects model.


          The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine were optimally described according to a one-compartment model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. The estimated population parameters (and interindividual variability) were apparent clearance (CL/F) 49.61 L/h (58.33%) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) 2300.26 L (45.62%), and the PTH level negatively correlated with CL/F. In comparison with the reference level, it was observed that the dosage of nifedipine should be reduced with the maximum boundary value of PTH, after a Monte Carlo simulation.


          This study provides insight into the effects of PTH on CYP3A-mediated clearance pathways. Moreover, PTH could be used as a guide for the appropriate administration of CYP3A eliminated drugs in patients with CKD.

          Most cited references38

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          Chronic Kidney Disease.

          The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR declines. Interventions targeting specific symptoms, or aimed at supporting educational or lifestyle considerations, make a positive difference to people living with CKD. Inequity in access to services for this disease disproportionally affects disadvantaged populations, and health service provision to incentivise early intervention over provision of care only for advanced CKD is still evolving in many countries.
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            Pharmacokinetics and dosage adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction.

            Chronic kidney disease is a common, progressive illness that is becoming a global public health problem. In patients with kidney dysfunction, the renal excretion of parent drug and/or its metabolites will be impaired, leading to their excessive accumulation in the body. In addition, the plasma protein binding of drugs may be significantly reduced, which in turn could influence the pharmacokinetic processes of distribution and elimination. The activity of several drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters has been shown to be impaired in chronic renal failure. In patients with end-stage renal disease, dialysis techniques such as hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis may remove drugs from the body, necessitating dosage adjustment. Inappropriate dosing in patients with renal dysfunction can cause toxicity or ineffective therapy. Therefore, the normal dosage regimen of a drug may have to be adjusted in a patient with renal dysfunction. Dosage adjustment is based on the remaining kidney function, most often estimated on the basis of the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by the Cockroft-Gault formula. Net renal excretion of drug is a combination of three processes: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption. Therefore, dosage adjustment based on GFR may not always be appropriate and a re-evaluation of markers of renal function may be required. According to EMEA and FDA guidelines, a pharmacokinetic study should be carried out during the development phase of a new drug that is likely to be used in patients with renal dysfunction and whose pharmacokinetics are likely to be significantly altered in these patients. This study should be carried out in carefully selected subjects with varying degrees of renal dysfunction. In addition to this two-stage pharmacokinetic approach, a population PK/PD study in patients participating in phase II/phase III clinical trials can also be used to assess the impact of renal dysfunction on the drug's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In conclusion, renal dysfunction affects more that just the renal handling of drugs and/or active drug metabolites. Even when the dosage adjustment recommended for patients with renal dysfunction are carefully followed, adverse drug reactions remain common.
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              Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Kidney Disease

              Kidney disease is an increasingly common comorbidity that alters the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Prescribing to patients with kidney disease requires knowledge about the drug, the extent of the patient's altered physiology, and pharmacokinetic principles that influence the design of dosing regimens. There are multiple physiologic effects of impaired kidney function, and the extent to which they occur in an individual at any given time can be difficult to define. Although some guidelines are available for dosing in kidney disease, they may be on the basis of limited data or not widely applicable, and therefore, an understanding of pharmacokinetic principles and how to apply them is important to the practicing clinician. Whether kidney disease is acute or chronic, drug clearance decreases, and the volume of distribution may remain the same or increase. Although in CKD, these changes progress relatively slowly, they are dynamic in AKI, and recovery is possible depending on the etiology and treatments. This, and the use of kidney replacement therapies further complicate attempts to quantify drug clearance at the time of prescribing and dosing in AKI. The required change in the dosing regimen can be estimated or even quantitated in certain instances through the application of pharmacokinetic principles to guide rational drug dosing. This offers an opportunity to provide personalized medical care and minimizes adverse drug events from either under- or overdosing. We discuss the principles of pharmacokinetics that are fundamental for the design of an appropriate dosing regimen in this review.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                13 July 2022
                : 16
                : 2261-2274
                [1 ]Center for Clinical Pharmacology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]The First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Pharmacy, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China , Hengyang, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Research Center of Drug Clinical Evaluation of Central South University , Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Nephrology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guoping Yang; Hao Zhang, Email ygp9880@126.com; zhanghaoliaoqing@163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                © 2022 Fu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 19 February 2022
                : 30 June 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 7, References: 38, Pages: 14
                Funded by: the National Major New Drug Creation Project of China;
                Funded by: National Scientific Foundation of China;
                Funded by: Medical Technology Innovation Guidance Project of Hunan Province Science and Technology Department;
                Funded by: Scientific Research Fund Project of Hunan Provincial Health Commission;
                This work was supported by the National Major New Drug Creation Project of China (No. 2020ZX09201–010), National Scientific Foundation of China (No. 81673519), Medical Technology Innovation Guidance Project of Hunan Province Science and Technology Department (No. 2020SK51805), and Scientific Research Fund Project of Hunan Provincial Health Commission (No. 20201980).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                chronic kidney disease,parathyroid hormone,cyp3a,population pharmacokinetic,nifedipine


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