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      Maritime route of colonization of Europe.

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          Abstract

          The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
          Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
          1091-6490
          0027-8424
          Jun 24 2014
          : 111
          : 25
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece;
          [2 ] Department of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180;
          [3 ] Department of Hematology, George Papanicolaou Hospital, 57010 Thessaloniki, Greece;
          [4 ] Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, 711 13 Crete, Greece;
          [5 ] Unità di Ricerca P. Cutino, Ospedali Riuniti Villa Sofia-Cervello, 90146 Palermo, Italy;
          [6 ] Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia;
          [7 ] Departments of Medicine and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195; and.
          [8 ] Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511.
          [9 ] Departments of Medicine and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195; and gstam@u.washington.edu.
          Article
          1320811111
          10.1073/pnas.1320811111
          24927591

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