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      Redundant roles for inflammasome receptors NLRP3 and NLRC4 in host defense against Salmonella

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          Abstract

          Intracellular pathogens and endogenous danger signals in the cytosol engage NOD-like receptors (NLRs), which assemble inflammasome complexes to activate caspase-1 and promote the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. However, the NLRs that respond to microbial pathogens in vivo are poorly defined. We show that the NLRs NLRP3 and NLRC4 both activate caspase-1 in response to Salmonella typhimurium. Responding to distinct bacterial triggers, NLRP3 and NLRC4 recruited ASC and caspase-1 into a single cytoplasmic focus, which served as the site of pro–IL-1β processing. Consistent with an important role for both NLRP3 and NLRC4 in innate immune defense against S. typhimurium, mice lacking both NLRs were markedly more susceptible to infection. These results reveal unexpected redundancy among NLRs in host defense against intracellular pathogens in vivo.

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          Most cited references 32

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          The inflammasomes: guardians of the body.

          The innate immune system relies on its capacity to rapidly detect invading pathogenic microbes as foreign and to eliminate them. The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provided a class of membrane receptors that sense extracellular microbes and trigger antipathogen signaling cascades. More recently, intracellular microbial sensors have been identified, including NOD-like receptors (NLRs). Some of the NLRs also sense nonmicrobial danger signals and form large cytoplasmic complexes called inflammasomes that link the sensing of microbial products and metabolic stress to the proteolytic activation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. The NALP3 inflammasome has been associated with several autoinflammatory conditions including gout. Likewise, the NALP3 inflammasome is a crucial element in the adjuvant effect of aluminum and can direct a humoral adaptive immune response. In this review, we discuss the role of NLRs, and in particular the inflammasomes, in the recognition of microbial and danger components and the role they play in health and disease.
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            Cytoplasmic flagellin activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta via Ipaf.

            Macrophages respond to Salmonella typhimurium infection via Ipaf, a NACHT-leucine-rich repeat family member that activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta. However, the specific microbial salmonella-derived agonist responsible for activating Ipaf is unknown. We show here that cytosolic bacterial flagellin activated caspase-1 through Ipaf but was independent of Toll-like receptor 5, a known flagellin sensor. Stimulation of the Ipaf pathway in macrophages after infection required a functional salmonella pathogenicity island 1 type III secretion system but not the flagellar type III secretion system; furthermore, Ipaf activation could be recapitulated by the introduction of purified flagellin directly into the cytoplasm. These observations raise the possibility that the salmonella pathogenicity island 1 type III secretion system cannot completely exclude 'promiscuous' secretion of flagellin and that the host capitalizes on this 'error' by activating a potent host-defense pathway.
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              Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence.

              Fungal infections represent a serious threat, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a key pro-inflammatory factor in innate antifungal immunity. The mechanism by which the mammalian immune system regulates IL-1beta production after fungal recognition is unclear. Two signals are generally required for IL-1beta production: an NF-kappaB-dependent signal that induces the synthesis of pro-IL-1beta (p35), and a second signal that triggers proteolytic pro-IL-1beta processing to produce bioactive IL-1beta (p17) via Caspase-1-containing multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes. Here we demonstrate that the tyrosine kinase Syk, operating downstream of several immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled fungal pattern recognition receptors, controls both pro-IL-1beta synthesis and inflammasome activation after cell stimulation with Candida albicans. Whereas Syk signalling for pro-IL-1beta synthesis selectively uses the Card9 pathway, inflammasome activation by the fungus involves reactive oxygen species production and potassium efflux. Genetic deletion or pharmalogical inhibition of Syk selectively abrogated inflammasome activation by C. albicans but not by inflammasome activators such as Salmonella typhimurium or the bacterial toxin nigericin. Nlrp3 (also known as NALP3) was identified as the critical NOD-like receptor family member that transduces the fungal recognition signal to the inflammasome adaptor Asc (Pycard) for Caspase-1 (Casp1) activation and pro-IL-1beta processing. Consistent with an essential role for Nlrp3 inflammasomes in antifungal immunity, we show that Nlrp3-deficient mice are hypersusceptible to Candida albicans infection. Thus, our results demonstrate the molecular basis for IL-1beta production after fungal infection and identify a crucial function for the Nlrp3 inflammasome in mammalian host defence in vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                2 August 2010
                : 207
                : 8
                : 1745-1755
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
                [2 ]Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Denise M. Monack: dmonack@ 123456stanford.edu
                Article
                20100257
                10.1084/jem.20100257
                2916133
                20603313
                © 2010 Broz et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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