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      Interleukin-1 Inhibits NMDA-Stimulated GnRH Secretion: Associated Effects on the Release of Hypothalamic Inhibitory Amino Acid Neurotransmitters

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          Abstract

          Immune system activation is often accompanied by alterations in the reproductive axis. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a polypeptide cytokine, has been postulated as a chemical messenger between the immune and the neuroendocrine systems. Using superfused hypothalamic fragments explanted from intact male rats, we evaluated the effects of IL-1 (0.5 and 5 n M) on basal and N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA)-stimulated release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and the associated modifications in the output of inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters involved in the control of GnRH secretion. IL-1 did not modify basal GnRH release, but markedly restrained the stimulatory effect of NMDA on GnRH secretion. γ-Aminobutyric acid, glycine and taurine concentrations significantly increased in the superfusion medium only after pretreatment with the higher dose of IL-1 (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that this cytokine inhibits NMDA- stimulated GnRH release, affecting the activity and/or the release of hypothalamic excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters participating in the regulation of GnRH secretion.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Immunoreactive interleukin-1β localization in the rat forebrain

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            Excitatory amino acids: function and significance in reproduction and neuroendocrine regulation.

            Excitatory amino acid neurotransmission is an essential component of the neuroendocrine transmission line that regulates anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Excitatory amino acids (EAAs), such as glutamate and aspartate, are found in large concentrations in presynaptic boutons of a variety of important hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the supraoptic nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the preoptic area. EAA receptors can be divided into two broad groups, namely, ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are subdivided into NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), kainate, and AMPA (DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors. Their main mode of action is by the modulation of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ion channels. Metabotropic receptors, on the other hand, act by a G-protein-stimulated release of intracellular Ca2+ or modulation of adenylate cyclase activity. The different EAA receptor subtypes are found in a variety of areas of the hypothalamus and the brain. In a variety of species, the administration of glutamate, NMDA, or kainate leads to LH release mediated through the stimulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. The major site of NMDA action appears to be the preoptic area--where GnRH cell bodies reside. AMPA and kainate appear to act primarily at the arcuate nucleus/median eminence, the site of GnRH nerve terminals. NMDA may also act upon noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus to influence hypothalamic GnRH release. The steroid-induced LH surge in ovariectomized animals and the preovulatory surge of LH in cycling animals and in pregnant mare's serum gonadotropic-primed animals are blocked by the NMDA antagonist MK801 and the AMPA/kainate antagonist DNQX. MK801 also suppressed FSH surges in most instances, whereas DNQX had no effect on FSH surges. In the ovariectomized female rat, both the NMDA antagonist AP5 and the AMPA/kainate antagonist DNQX, lowered mean LH levels, LH pulse amplitude, and LH pulse frequency. Activation of NMDA receptors advanced the time of vaginal opening in the immature female rat, while kainate and DNQX were without effect. Gonadal steroid removal (castration) did not alter NMDA receptor levels or affinity in the hypothalamus of female or male rats. Likewise, steroid replacement to castrate rats did not affect hypothalamic NMDA receptor levels or NMDA R1 mRNA levels. Similarly, NMDA and kainate receptor levels in the hypothalamus did not change during the time of puberty in the female rat. In contrast, AMPA receptor (GluR1) immunoreactive levels in the magnocellular preoptic area (mPOA), the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were found to be markedly elevated during the time of the LH surge in estradiol-progesterone-treated castrate rats compared to those of the vehicle-only-treated castrate rat. The release rates of glutamate and aspartate in the POA were found to be significantly elevated during the steroid-induced LH surge in the ovariectomized adult rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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              In vivo and in vitro studies on the effect of the serotorinergic system on luteinizing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone secretion in prepubertal and peripubertal female rats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2000
                December 1999
                15 December 1999
                : 7
                : 1
                : 46-50
                Affiliations
                Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Article
                26419 Neuroimmunomodulation 2000;7:46–50
                10.1159/000026419
                10601818
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 27, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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