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      Prognosis of Renal Amyloidosis: A Clinicopathological Study Using Cluster Analysis

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          Progression of renal amyloidosis is associated with severe proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, and various mechanisms have been postulated to explain these complications. We studied the acceleration of proteinuria and reduced renal function by cluster analysis using clinical parameters, renal histological findings, type of renal amyloidosis and follow-up data. We divided 97 cases into three groups of renal amyloidosis. Accelerated progression correlated with serum creatinine (s-Cr) levels at renal biopsy and histological grade of renal damage by amyloid deposition (p < 0.0001). The most influential prognostic factors (s-Cr level ≧2.0 mg/dl) were tubulointerstitial and vascular damage induced by amyloid deposition at biopsy (odds ratio 96.9 and 69.2, respectively). In addition, we found amyloidosis type amyloid associated (AA) correlated with more amyloid-mediated vascular and tubulointerstitial damage than amyloidosis type amyloid light chain (AL) (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively). Proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome were more severe in cases of amyloidosis AL than in amyloidosis AA (p = 0.076). In conclusion, less tubulointerstitial and vascular damage was caused by amyloid deposition; this was slowly progressive. Amyloid AA was detected in tubulointerstitial tissue and vessels more frequently than amyloid AL. Heavy proteinuria and/or nephrosis were not indicators of rapid progression.

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          Glomerular Hypertrophy as a Prognostic Marker in Childhood IgA Nephropathy

          A clinicopathological and morphometric analysis of glomerular hypertrophy (GH) was conducted using biopsies obtained from 52 selected pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Of the 52 patients, consisting of 12 with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 40 without CRF, various clinical and morphometric parameters were compared to 10 controls with benign hematuria. The mean glomerular tuft size, mesangial area, and interstitial area all significantly increased in patients with poor prognosis when compared to the non-CRF-IgAN cases and the control cases. The glomerular capillary loop size was also significantly greater in CRF-IgAN than in non-CRF-IgAn patients (1.37 times) and the controls (1.55 times). The 10-year renal survival rates of patients with ‘large’ loop size (>1.55-fold) were significantly lower (p int ) (r 2 = 0.43, p 2 = 0.348, p 2 = 0.326, p 2 = 0.374, p int (r 2 = 0.452, p 2 = 0.342, p int (r 2 = 0.484, p < 0.001). GH, which was manifested by glomerular capillary loop dilatation, shows a close correlation with the interstitial expansion, degree of GS and mesangial enlargement. These data suggest that both extra- and intraglomerular hemodynamic changes followed by primary glomerular damage thus lead to capillary dilatation of the intact glomeruli as a morphological manifestation of GH and therefore such changes play a key role in the progression of IgAN.

            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            22 January 2001
            : 87
            : 1
            : 42-49
            Second Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
            45883 Nephron 2001;87:42–49
            © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 22, Pages: 8
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45883
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